Tilakayat of Trutiya Peeth 108 Shree Brejesh ji maharaj

:: Jagadguru Shree Mahaprabhu Shree Vallabhacharyaji ::


Please click below to View/Listen the Vachanamruts. Some of the Vachanamruts are kept as Video some of them are ONLY audio.
Sr. No. Vachanamrut Topic Vachanamruts by Audio/Video link
1 Pushtimarg and Pushtimargiya Utsavs Shree Vrajeshkumarji View Video
2 Navratna Granth (by Shree Mahaprabhuji) Shree Vrajeshkumarji Listen Audio

:: Shri Vakpati Foundation ::

SHRI VAKPATI FOUNDAITON is a TRUST established by Shri Vallabhachraya Trutiya Gruhadhish Goswami 108 Shri Vrajesh Kumarji Maharaj (Kankroli), duly registered under Public Trust Act with the Charity Commissioner under No.e/4913/Vadodara, with a view to undertake multifarius activities for the social, religious, spiritual and overall upliftment of mankind, leading to highest sublimation of their life, by propagating Indian Vedic Philisophy especially propounded by Jagad Guru Shri Vallabhacharyaji.

Goswami 108 Shri Vagishkumarji, the elder son of the founder of the Trust Goswami 108 Shri Vrajesh kumarji Maharaj is the Chairman and Managing Trustee of the Trust and all its various objects and activtes are planned, organised and manged by him. He is a very bversatile personality having outstanding achievements in the field of literature, specially hindi and sankrit, religion, art , music and bestowed with varous titles, awards and widely travelled across lwngth and breadth of the world at a very young age of 34 years. Under his able stewardship,m the trust has already established landmark in various fields.

Vakpati foundation was established in 1995-96 A.D. With the grace of Shree Dwarkadhish prabhu and blessings of shuddhadvaita trutiya peethadhiswar shree Vrajesh kumar Maharaj Shri, the vakpati foundation was formed. The elder son of Shree Vrajesh kumar mahrajshri, Shree Vagishbawashri is the president and managing trustee of Vakpati foundation. The basic objectives of this foundation are as follows:

* To spread the awareness amongst the people about the rich heritage of India, its eternal religion, Shuddhadvaita doctrine and premlakshana bhakti.
* To perform the activities to uplift people socially, literary, spiritually and economically.
* To encourage the research activities in the field of Religion, spirituality, and arts.
* To spread the awareness amongst the people through the medium of books, magazines, audio/video cassettes or CDs etc.
* To renovate the ancient monuments and sculptures of pushtimarg.

Activites of Vakpati Foundation:

* Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth (Open University)
* The compilation and publication of Pushtimargiya Gyan Kosh (Encyclopedia)
* Shree Vallabhiya Vaishnav Elite forum (Pushti Praygan Parivar)
* Publication of Pushtipath, a hindi three monthly magazine.
* Shree Vallabh Yuva Sangathan
* Pushtak prakashan (publication of books)
* Shree Vallabh Vichar Prasar-prachar Abhiyaan
* To organize the spiritual camps.
* To organize the activities related to public health.
* To develop the complete directory of all vallabhiya vaishnavas residing at various places.
* Jan Kalyan Sahay Yojana for performing the activities to provide help to the common people.
* Sanskar Bodh Pariksha is the series of exams meant to spread the awareness about the eternal hindu religion to common people without the distinction of caste, creed and nationality


* Establishment of Informal Open University of Suddhadwait Pustimarg.
* Conducting correspondence course for the sytemmatic study of Philisophy of Shri Vallbhacharyaji and Pustimarg.
* Orgenising study camps for practical coaching of various aspects of Pustimarg.
* Compiling, editing and publishing Encyclppedia of Pustimarg.
* Establishing Shri Vallabhaiya Vaishnav Elite forum for intellectuals of varoious professions.
* Organisning shri Vallabh Young parivar for inculcating Pustimargiya Sanskar in youngerr generaton.
* Conducting Socio-economic-religious survey of Pustimargiya Vaishnav Samaj.
* Preparing Audio-video Cassettes and publishing books and literatures for propagating philosophy of Shri Vallabhacharyaji and Pustimarg.
* Celebrating various Utsavs (festuvities ) and organising conferences.

Staff members working for Shree VakpatiFoundation:

* About 10 Seva bhavi Vaishnavas are involved in strengthening and supporting the graceful administration of Shree Vakpati Foundation. The details of these seva-bhavi vaishnavas could be found at this section.

Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth (Pushtimargiya Open University):

Due to the continuous demand of vaishnavas, Shree Vakpati Foundation established Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth. This enabled the common people to acquire the knowledge of pushtimarg by reading the materials provided by the university itself. The university provides this course as the distant learning course. This university is the first successful attempt to spread the genuine principles of Shree Vallabh. Also, this medium is the best for the modern youths to get acquainted with this path. Keeping in mind the above objectives, Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth was formed. And vaishnavas have showed an unprecedented response to this task. The details of this university of given below:

Chancellor: P. P. G. 108 Shree Vrajeshkumar Maharajshri Kankroli
Vice Chancellor: P.P.G. 108 Shree Vagishbawashri mahoday Kankroli
Secretary: K. K. Shashtri (Ahmedabad) and Shree Bhagwat Prasad Pandya (Vadodara).


We, although are pushtimargiya vaishnavas do not know the principles of pushtimarg. We are ignorant about the do’s and don’t’s of pushtimarg.
To acquire this knowledge, we need to do Satsang daily. But in this modern age, the Satsang is generally not practiced in the houses of pushtimargiya vaishnavas.
In this situation, there is always a danger to get distracted and diverted from the main path of pushtimarg.
In lieu of this situation, we impart the genuine knowledge of principles of pushtimarg, the pushtimargiya course syllabus was designed and started in 1996 A.D.

Course Contents:

Detailed Course Content

1. The student is required to read/understand the course materials for every year at his/her residence.
2. For that, every month, a small booklet covering a particular topic as part of full course work would be sent to the student. These booklets are written by Prof. Ramesh Parikh. Thus, total 12 booklets would be sent within a year.
3. At the end of the booklet, there will be 25 questions (of total 25 marks) related to the topics covered in the same booklet. The questions will be objective kind of questions. The answers to the questions have to be given in the question paper itself and detach it from the booklet and have to be returned back to Vallabh Vidyapeeth for the evaluation.
4. Every 12 months, a question paper of 100 marks will also be sent to the student and that has also to be returned back similarly.
5. The course work booklets are very simple and each vaishnav is required to read the booklet on his/her own and supposed to answer the questions without taking help of others.
6. Daily only around 2 hours of time is required for a student to easily complete the course work,
7. According to the total marks obtained, each student will be graded according to three classes i.e. First, second and third class.
8. A medal will be awarded to the student who will get the maximum marks.
9. First three students will be awarded the scholarship.
10. Each student will also be awarded the degree certificate for that particular year.
11. For the recursive reading, these course materials will remain at your home.
12. Within 10 years only, one will get the genuine knowledge of pushtimarg.
13. Presently, the course work is available in Gujarati and Hindi language (English language is under the progress)

Eligibility: The one who had appeared for tenth standard exam or any curious vaishnav, at any age, can enroll for this course work.

Process of Registration

* The course work begins in the month of May every year.
* The academic year would be considered from May to April.
* The entrance fee of first year is Rs. 200. For the other years, the fee is Rs. 250.
* All family members can join for this course work (by registering individually)
* To join for this course work, each vaishnav is required to get the registration form from the Vallabh Vidyapeeth. The dually filled registration form and the fee are required to be sent to the Vidyapeeth by the end of 30th April. The forms received after 30th April would not be processed.
* The mode of payment of fees is through Demand Draft on the name of Shree Vakpati Foundation. The cheques are not acceptable.

Head office:

Shri Bethak Mandir,
Kevda baug, (Dwarkesh Baug)
Madan Zampa Road,
Email: vakpatifoundation@vallabhkankroli.org

Encyclopedia of Pushtimarg (A major research project)

Shudda-advaita Brahmvaad enjoys a unique position in the Pushtimarg. The students of this philosophy are required to grasp it fully. Up till now, fewer initiatives have been taken to make it understand, but the encyclopedia approach had not been taken by any other initiative. Due to this, several researchers are appointed under Dr. Vagishbawashri who is the primary editor of this encyclopedia. This encyclopedia would be published in Hindi in eight volumes. Each volume will have around 400 pages.
This would be probably the first publication in the history of pushtimarg
The famous publishing company of Delhi would be publishing this work.

Charanamrut Raspan (Bimonthy Magazine)
Please visit the this link for more Information

Shree Vallabh Vaishnav Elite Forum (Pushti Pragya Parivar)

In vaishnav society, there are highly respectable doctors, professors, lawyers, Engineers, Tax Consultants, Managers, Industrialists, government officers are present.

Jan Kalyan Sahay Yojana (People’s Welfare Scheme)

Organised by Shri Vakpati Foundation

One of the objects of Shri Vakpati Foundation is to undertake multifarious activities with a view to help the weaker section of the society to mitigate their sufferings to the extent possible by the Trust. Needy people face difficulties in procuring adequate medical attention and enough food stuff as well as to provide education to their children.
Our Upanishads have stressed the importance of all three aspects. It said :

1. Sharir Madhyam Khalu Dharm Sadhanam. And Aarogyam Sapvattm cha Shuddhannen Jayanti Dhi. Specifying medical help to needy :
2. Annam Braimeti Vyajanat. Specifying help for food.
3. Saa Vidya Ya Vimyuktaye. And Vidya Shakti Samstanam.

Specifying need for education :

In view of these scriptures in our Dharmashastras, the Trust has sponsord People’s Welfare Scheme in all three categories.

* TABIBI SAHAY YOJNA (Medical Help ) :

The trust has decided to raise about Rs. Eleven Lac for this project and will contribute to the needy poor people irrespective of caste, creed and religion for different aspects on the basis of medical report.

* subsidising cost of medicine.
* Reimbursing expenses for laboratory tests & X-rays.
* Help in the need for hospitalisation.
* Help for Operations.
* Help in terminal cases.

ANNA SAHAY YOJNA (Providing food grains) :

The trust would earmark a sum of Rs. Eleven Lac out of the contributions it will receive and provide food grains to such needy families on the basis of the recommendations of prominent personalities, as Narsi Mehat has rightly said ” Vaishnav Jan to Tene Kahiya Je Pir Parai jane Re “, meaning. He who understands the sufferings of the others is VAISHNAV in true sense.

VIDYA SAHAY YOJNA (Educational Help) :

For this scheme also the Trust would allocate Rs. Eleven Lac out of the contributions it will receive and render necessary help to the needy poor children to persue their studies, as the Education can only dispale the myths & wrong notions prevailing in the society and can improve the quality of life of an individual. This scheme will be implemented in the following manner :

o Payment of yearly fees for the children studying in primary schools.
o Subsidise cost of books, note-books and uniforms.
o Assist in providing tutorial studies.
o To fill the gaps in the helps being rendered by other organisations.
o To facilitate studies for higher education in the field of medical, engineering and other vocational courses.

Shri Vakpati Foundation is a registered Charitable trust having I.T.exemption U/S 80 (G) under No. BRD/SYS/104-4-V/96-97. Philanthropic individuals and institutions are invited to share their resources with Shri Vakpati Foundation in their endeavor to help needy poor crust of the society.

Sanskaar Bodh Priksha
:: Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth (Pushtimargiya Open University) ::

Due to the continuous demand of vaishnavas, Shree Vakpati Foundation established “Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth”. This enabled the common people to acquire the knowledge of pushtimarg by reading the materials provided by the university itself. The university provides this course as the distant learning course. This university is the first successful attempt to spread the genuine principles of Shree Vallabh. Also, this medium is the best for the modern youths to get acquainted with this path. Keeping in mind the above objectives, “Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth” was formed. And vaishnavas have showed an unprecedented response to this task. The details of this university of given below:

Chancellor: P. P. G. 108 Shree Vrajeshkumar Maharajshri – Kankroli
Vice Chancellor: P.P.G. 108 Shree Vagishbawashri mahoday – Kankroli
Secretary: K. K. Shashtri (Ahmedabad) and Shree Bhagwat Prasad Pandya (Vadodara).


We, although are pushtimargiya vaishnavas do not know the principles of pushtimarg. We are ignorant about the do’s and don’t’s of pushtimarg.
To acquire this knowledge, we need to do “Satsang” daily. But in this modern age, the “Satsang” is generally not practiced in the houses of pushtimargiya vaishnavas.
In this situation, there is always a danger to get distracted and diverted from the main path of pushtimarg.
In lieu of this situation, we impart the genuine knowledge of principles of pushtimarg, the pushtimargiya course syllabus was designed and started in 1996 A.D.

Course Contents:

The student is required to read/understand the course materials for every year at his/her residence.

1. For that, every month, a small booklet covering a particular topic as part of full course work would be sent to the student. These booklets are written by Prof. Ramesh Parikh. Thus, total 12 booklets would be sent within a year.
2. At the end of the booklet, there will be 25 questions (of total 25 marks) related to the topics covered in the same booklet. The questions will be objective kind of questions. The answers to the questions have to be given in the question paper itself and detach it from the booklet and have to be returned back to “Vallabh Vidyapeeth” for the evaluation.
3. Every 12 months, a question paper of 100 marks will also be sent to the student and that has also to be returned back similarly.
4. The course work booklets are very simple and each vaishnav is required to read the booklet on his/her own and supposed to answer the questions without taking help of others.
5. Daily only around 2 hours of time is required for a student to easily complete the course work,
6. According to the total marks obtained, each student will be graded according to three classes i.e. First, second and third class.
7. A medal will be awarded to the student who will get the maximum marks.
8. First three students will be awarded the scholarship.
9. Each student will also be awarded the degree certificate for that particular year.
10. For the recursive reading, these course materials will remain at your home.
11. Within 10 years only, one will get the genuine knowledge of pushtimarg.
12. Presently, the course work is available in Gujarati and Hindi language (English language is under the progress)

Eligibility: The one who had appeared for tenth standard exam or any curious vaishnav, at any age, can enroll for this course work.

Process of Registration:

1. The course work begins in the month of May every year.
2. The academic year would be considered from May to April.
3. All family members can join for this course work (by registering individually)
4. To join for this course work, each vaishnav is required to get the registration form from the Vallabh Vidyapeeth. The dually filled registration form and the fee are required to be sent to the Vidyapeeth by the end of 30th April. The forms received after 30th April would not be processed.
5. The mode of payment of fees is through Demand Draft on the name of “Shree Vakpati Foundation”. The cheques are not acceptable.

Application Form:

Please fill the below Application Form 1 and 2 and send the hard copy by post/courier to us at following address. Please read the instructions while filling the form and send us the required documents and both filled forms mentioned in this application form.

Application Form 1: Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth

Application Form 2: Shree Vallabh Vidyapeeth

Head office/Address to send us the Application forms for subscription:

Shri Bethak Mandir,
Kevda baug, (Dwarkesh Baug)
Madan Zampa Road,
Email: vakpatifoundation@vallabhkankroli.org

Detailed Syllabus

Shuddha-advaita Veneet
Basic Level – Year 1

Shuddha-advaita Kovid
Intermediate Level – 1st Year
Year 2

Mahaprabhu Shree Vallabhacharyaji

Guru’s Swaroop

Shree Gopinathji & Shree Gusaiji

Vraj Mandal

Shree Gusaiji and his family

Shree Bethakji – Charan Chowki


Bhakti Marg & Bhakti

Shree Girirajji

Seva and Asamarpita Tyag

Shree Yamunaji

Ananyata and Anyashray

Nidhi Swaroops

Satsang and Dussang

Shuddha-advaita Brahmvaad

Shree Sarvottam Stotram


Shodash Granth Parichay

Pushtimargiya Mantra diksha

Shodash Granth (Granth 1)


Shodash Granth (Granth 2)

Stotra Paath Abhyas

Shodash Granth (Granth 3)

Shuddha-advaita Praveen
Intermediate Level – 2nd Year
Year 3

Shuddha-advaita Nipuna
Intermediate Level – 3rd Year
Year 4

Pushti Pravaah Maryada

Shikshapatra 1 -10

Navratna & Antahkarana Prabodh

Shikshapatra 11 30

Vivek dhairashray

Shikshapatra 31 -41


Shree Harirai Vangmuktavali

Siddhant Rahasya

Shree Harirai Vangmuktavali

Chatuh Shloki & Seva Fal

Shree Harirai Vangmuktavali

Bhakti Vardhini

Shree Harirai Vangmuktavali

Jalbhed and Panchpadyani

Shree Harirai Vangmuktavali

Sanyas Nirnaya

Kirtan Sahitya Parichay

Nirodh Lakshana

Vaarta Sahitya Parichay


Ashta Sakha part -1

Panch Shloki

Ashta Sakha part -2

Shuddha-advaita Ratna
Higher Level – 1st Year
Year 5

Shuddha-advaita Bhaskar
Higher Level – 2nd Year
Year 6

Vaishnavta Nu Swaroop and Kartavya -1

Purusharth and Purushottam Ni Ekrupta

Vaishnavta Nu Swaroop and Kartavya -2

Mrutyu Ane Moksha Part -1

Vaishnavta Nu Swaroop and Kartavya -3

Mrutyu Ane Moksha Part – 1

Vaishnavta Nu Swaroop and Kartavya -4

Atma Ni Aulakh

Shrestha Vaishnavi Jeevan Part -1

Atma Ni Aulakh

Shrestha Vaishnavi Jeevan Part -2

Shree Vallabhakhyan Introduction

Shrestha Vaishnavi Jeevan Part -3

Shreemad Bhagwad Geeta (Part 1)

Seva Samaj Part – 1

Shreemad Bhagwad Geeta (Part 2)

Seva Samaj Part – 2

Shreemad Bhagwat Introduction Part 1

Sevama Rasatmatkbhav

Shreemad Bhagwat Introduction Part 2

Vishistha Manorath

Shreemad Bhagwat Introduction Part 3

Vraj yatra

Gayatri Bhasya

Shuddha-advaita Shiromani
Higher Level – 3rd Year
Year 7

Shuddha-advaita Seva Bhushan
Ph.D Level – 1st Year
Year 8

Bhakti Poshan (Part 1)

Pushti Seva Vigyan

Bhakti Poshan (Part 2)

Tum Bina Tatva Kachu Nahi Jag Me

Bharatiya Tatvagyan (An Introduction)

84 Bhagwadiya Tatva Vichaar

Ras Drushti Ni Tarfen Ma

Tulsi Kyaro Part 1 (Rameshbhai Parikh)

Raas Panchadhyayi – 1

Tulsi Kyaro Part 2 (Rameshbhai Parikh)

Raas Panchadhyayi – 2

Tulsi Kyaro Part 3 (Rameshbhai Parikh)

Pushti Path Nirdarshan (Part -1)

Pushti Path Nirdarshan (Part -2)

Pushti Paathey (Part – 1)

Pushti Paathey (Part -2)

Seva Sukh and Aachaar Vichaar Shuddhi

Pushtimarg and Our Duty

Shuddha-advaita Ras Bhushan
Ph. D Level – 2nd Year
Year 9

Shuddha-advaita Vachaspati
Ph. D Level – 3rd Year
Year 10

Pragate Pushti Maharas Den (Shree Vallabh pad Padma milind)

RasikanaKo Ras Ek Hi Baatan Me

Asharo Ek Shree Vallabhadhish Ko (“)

252 Bhagwadiya Tatva Vichaar

Shree Vallabh Prabhu Nu Dhyaan (“)

Tulsi Kyaro Part 4

Hari ras Tab Hi to Jaay Paiye (“)

Tulsi Kyaro Part 4

Pushtimarg nu Anirvachaniya Mahaan Tatva (“)

Tulsi Kyaro Part 4

Shree Maharpabhuji nu Pragatya (“)

Tulsi Kyaro Part 4

Shree Mahaprabhuji Chintan Granth (“)

Tulsi Kyaro Part 4

Shree Sarvottam Stotra (Pt. Mangal Uddhav Shastri)

Bethak Charitra (Ramesh bhai Parikh)

Shree Vitthaleshwar Chintan Prakaar (“)

Pushti Path Rahasya

Shree Gusaiji Krut Vigyapti (“)

Prasthan Chatustayi (Go. Chandragopalji Mahoday)

Naamratnakhya (Prof. Ramesh bhai Parikh)

Karma Nu Rahasya (Go. Chandragopalji)

Bruhat Shikshapatra

Bhaktiyog (Go. Vrajesh kumar Maharajshri)

Shuddha-advaita Brahmvaad (Jethalal Shah)

Vallabh Vedant (Nagardas Bambhaniya)

1. Shree Balkrishnalalji (I Tilakayat of Trutiya Peeth) ::

Shree Balkrishnalalji (V.S 1606-1645 )

Appeared on V.S 1606 Ashwin Krishna Paksha 13, Wednesday. After his father Shree Vitthalnathji’s and his elder brother shree Gopinathji’s entrance into the divine abode (nitya leela), he became the first tilakayat of Trutiya (Third) peeth of pushtimarg. He was the third son of shree Gusaiji (Shree Vitthalnathji).
His marriage ceremony took place in V.S 1626 with Shree kamalabahuji. They had following children:


Birth Year (V.S.)

Shree Gopdeva betiji

Shree Dwarkeshji

Shree Vrajnathji

Shree Vrajbhushanji

Shree Pitambarji

Shree Vrajalankarji

Shree Purushottamji

From the 6 brothers, Shree Balkrishnalalji was third. His swaroop was dark and beautiful. His eyes were very large and beautiful, due to which he was often known as Rajeev Lochan i.e. the one who has lotus like (beautiful) eyes. As such, there was good relation with other brothers, but shree balkrishnalalji had a great bondage to 6th brother i.e. Shree Yadunathji Maharaj. Due to this, they always use to perform the seva together.

Childhood and Education:

In V.S. 1614, at the age of 8 years, his sacred thread ceremony took place at Adel near Prayaag. After this ceremony, he began to acquire the knowledge of scriptures i.e. Ved, Vedangs, Puranas and others granthas from his father Shree Gusaiji. Within very short time span, he mastered all scriptures. Apart from acquiring the primary knowledge of scriptures, he also studied the granthas authored by Shree Vallabhacharyaji like Anubhasya, Subodhini, Nibandhas and other granthas of pushtimarg. He use to regularly preach vaishnavas, the principles of pushti Sampraday.He also use to indulge in the spiritual discussions with the learned pandits. He became the able-Tilakayat of Shuddha-advaita Smapraday Tutiya Peeth.

Marriage and his sons:

In V.S. 1623, the marriage ceremony of Shri Balkrishnalalji took palce. His wife was Shreemati Kamalavati Bahuji. The family of Shree Balkrishnalalji is enlisted in the above table.

Seva of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu:

After giving Yagyopavit Samskara and Brahmsambandh Diskha to Shri Balkrishnalalji, Shree Gusaiji taught him the seva shrungar of Shreenathji and other swaroopas. Shree Balkrishnalalji use to daily offer seva to Dwakadhish Prabhu in Adel. During this period, he developed a strong bondage and love towards Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu. Gradually, he became to experiance the lilas (Divine plays) of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu also. Due to which, he developed the ultimate love i.e. selfless unlimited love towards Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu.

Appearance of Shree Swaminiji (Shree Yamunaji): One day, in his dream at night, Shree Balkrishnalalji did the darshan of Shree Swaminiji (Shree Yamunaji).He suddenly woke up from his sleep, and strongly determined to get the swaroop of Shree Swaminiji and to place the swaroop beside Shree Dwarkadhishji. At that time, he created a very beautiful stotra narrating the swaroop of Shree Swaminiji that he saw in his dream. The stotra is ‘Swapna Drushta Swamini Stotra’. In the morning, he told everything to Shree Gusaiji and began to crave for the swaroopa of Shree Swaminiji. Seeing the strong determination and great curiosity of Shree Balkrishnalalji, SHree Gusaiji became happy and gave him the blessing that if your love towards shree prabhu is true and your determination is strong then your manoratha will become true soon. To accomplished any task, one needs complete devotion and love towards that task. After Shree Gusaiji’s blessings, Shree Balkrishnalalji use to every time remain in Virah of Shree Swaminiji (i.e. use to long for Shree Swaminiji). The Viraha of Shre Balkrishnalalji became so high that he even decided to quit taking water and food. Seeing the strong determination of Shree Balrkishnalalji, Shree Gusaiji called him and gave a pair of golden Bangles and told him that your manoratha would be fulfilled in the place which is very historical and is on the banks of Shree Yamunaji. Further, he told that whichever swaroopa of Shree Swaminiji, these bangles fits in,would be the swaminiji of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu.

Listening to this encouraging statements of Shree Gusaiji, Shree Balkrishnalalji use to search for the swaroopa of Shree swaminiji daily after the Rajbhog seva of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu in the Anosar time.

In V.S. 1638 Magh Krushna Paksha 4 Sunday, Shree Balkrishanlalji went to Shree Gunjavan, and there he took his snan (bath) and began to recite Shreemad Bhagwat Mahapurana.When he stood up in the banks of Shree Yamunaji to recite the stotra of Shree Yamunaji, he suddenly began to experiance a divine power and effulgence in his heart. After some time, he saw a very attractive swaroop of Shree Yamunaji on the banks. Shree Balkrishanlalji went besides that swaroop and did the Sakstang Dandwat Pranaam and began to recite the stotra of praise and he made to wear the pair of golden bangles to that swaroop. He became very happy seeing the swaroop. He placed the swaroop of Shree Swaminij in the beautiful palanquin (Palaki) and he reached Gokul, before evening. Hearing the news of Shree Balkrishnalalji, entire village of Shreemad Gokul became happy and created a joyful atmosphere. Shree Vitthalnath Gusaiji accompanied with his other sons, came before and welcomed Shree Swaminiji and exchanged the badhai with each other for getting the swaroop of Shree Swmainiji. Shree Gusaiji then, placed the swaroopa of Shree Swaminiji besides Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu in the Khandpaat. Shree Gusaiji taught shree Balkrishnalalji, the seva pranalika of Shree Swaminiji. From this day onwards, every year on Magh Krishna 4 is celebrated as the “PATOTSAV OF SHREE SWAMINIJI “.

After some days, the new mandir of Shree Dwarkadhish in Shreemad Gokul, became ready. With that, Shree Balkrishnalalji and Shree Gusaiji started the seva of Shree Dwarkadhishji in the new mandir in Gokul.

Seva Bhavna:
Shree Balkrishnalalji use to everytime remain in the seva of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu. It is said that Shree Balrkishnalalji use to get so much engrossed in the seva that he use to get the divine sentimental love for shree Prabhu. One day, when nandmahotsav was celebrated in the mandir, according to the principles of the sect, due to his small age, Shree Balrkishanlalji took the swaroop of Shree Yashodaji (Mother of Shree krishna) and began to wave the cradle of Shree Navnitpriyaji. There was the atmosphere of joy and happiness in the mandir. People were dancing and singing. Kirtans of palana was also being sung at that time. During this, suddenly, Shree balkrishanlalji began to acquire the sentiments of Shree Yashodaji and the divine milk began to sprout from his chest. He took Shree Navnitpriyaji from the cradle and placed Shree navnitpriyaji on his chest. Seeing this, Shree Gusaiji became very happy and blessed entire Gruh (i.e. Third seat of Pushtimarg) that “MAY THIS KIND OF NANDMAHOTSAV BE CELEBRATED EVERY TIME IN THIS GRUH”.

Tilakayat of Third Seat of Pushtimarg:

In V.S. 1635, Shree Gusaiji did the distribution of his divine property amongst his sons. In this distribution, Shree Balklrishnalalji demanded the swaroopa of Shree Dwarkadhishji from Shree Gusaiji. From V.S. 1635 , Shree Dwarkadhish prabhu became the Nidhi swaroop of Third Peeth of Pushtimarg and Shree Balkrishnalalji became the Adhya (First) Peethadhishwar of this seat.

Literary works:

Shree Balkrishnalalji was very talented and was great litterateur. His works includes the following:

1. Swapna Drusht Swamini Stotra
2. Gupt Swamini Stotra
3. Bhakti Vardhini Stotra Vivruti
4. Prasad Vagish bhasya Vivran
5. Sarvottam Stotra Vivruti

Nitya Leela Pravesh:

He entered into the divine abode (Nitya leela) in V.S. 1645 (the date of Nitya Leela needs some research. It is believed that Shree Balkrishnalalji entered into nitya leela in V.S. 1645, but according to certain granthas which were daily recited by Shree Balkrishnalalji like Nibandh Prakaran of Shree Bhagwat, we get the signature of Shree Balkrishanalalji with time. The Time which is written is V.S. 1649. Thus, it can be deduced that Shree Balkrishnalalji must have entered into the Nitya Leela in V.S. 1650)

It is also believed that Shree Balkrishnalalji disappeared in the Pithika of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu.

Reference: Kankroli Ka Itihaas by Kanthmani Shastri, Shree Vidhya Vibhag, Kankroli

: Swaroop Description of Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu – Kankroli ::

Shree Dwarkadhish Prabhu – Kankroli (Trutiya Gruh Nidhi)

Swaroop Description:

The swaroop of shree Dwarkadhish prabhu is Chatrabhuj (Four armed) Shyam (Dark) swaroop, where two shree Two Shreehasts (Hands) are of shree Swaminiji (Shree Mukhya Swamini) and rest two shree hast are of shreeji. The swaroop of shree swaminiji is hidden inside the swaroop of shree dwarkadhishji. Only two shree hasts of shree swaminiji are visible.

AYUDH (Weapons):

Shree Chakra, Shree Padma

Shree Gada

Shree Shankh

Above is the Maryada bhav of Ayudh. There is also the pushti bhav of above ayudhs.
Shringar Description:

* Kirit at Shree Mastak
* Shyam Aabha
* Maha Vayjayanti mala at Shree Hriday Kamal
* Kaushtaubhmani (green colored) at Hriday (Lotus like heart)
* Chakdaar
* Van Mala
* Rectangular pithika (four Swaminijis)

Inside Pithika (Stele): 6 chinhas
1. Above Chakra : Chatrabhuj swaroop of shreeji at the time when shreeji gave darshan to shree Devkiji and Vasudevji at Karagruh
2. Above Gada: Chatrabhuj swaroop of shreeji
3. Below Shankh and right lower arm (Varad Shree Hast) , lies two two sakhis or two two Parshads or two two Veds.

The Leela Bhavna:

The Leela bhavna of Shree Dwarkadhish prabhu is as “Aankh Michoni leela”. Once, near yamuna tat (banks of Shree Yamunaji), at Gunjavaan at Braj, Shree Swaminiji was having “Varta lap” about shreeji with her own yuths and shree thakurji yuths sakhis. The thakurji’s yuth sakhis were facing the Swaminiji and swaminiji’s yuth sakhis were with swaminiji. Suddenly, Shreeji saw this, and decided to have a leela for give anand to swaminji. Shreeji slowly came from the back side of shreewaminiji and shreeji suddenly closed the Netra of swaminiji. To give more anand to swaminiji he created two more hasts where upper left hasts indicated his yuth’s sakhis to remain silient (as his yuth’s sakhis will always in the side of shreeji). They remained silent. Then again to more anand, shreeji started playing Flute “Venu naad” with his upper right shree hast and conveyed to shreewaminiji that “who am i?”
thus, shreeji became Chatrabhuj. Two hasts closing the eyes of shreeswaminiji and one saying to remain silent and one doing venu naad

Shree Dwarkeshastakam: (By Kankroli Naresh PPG 108 Shree Vrajeshkumar Maharajshri – Kankroli – Baroda)











Reference :

Shree Dwarkeshashtakam by Trutiya Gruhadhish Shree Kankroli Naresh Shree 108 Shree Brajesh Kumar Maharajshri, Kankroli – Baroda


Shri Gopinathji, the elder son of Shri Vallabhacharyaji was born on the 12th Day of the black half of the month of Ashvin in the S.Y.1568, soon after Shri Vallabhacharyaji had completed a “Soma Yagna” and was residing in the village called Adel (Near Prayaga). He had received the fond care and full guidance in his education from his father. Shri Gopinathji was quite simple and to him the teaching of his father were not mere doctrine’s to be studied and talked about in eloquence, but principles to be followed sedulously.

The “Yajnopavita Samskara” (Sacred Thread Ceremony) of Shri Gopinathji was performed in the S.T. 1573 when Shri Vallabhacharya was staying at Varanasi. Soon after as is the practice in cultured Hindu Brahmin families in those times, the real education of the young celibate into Vedic lore began in right earnest.

Apart from the studies of the comparative systems of the doctrines, he was trained in Anu Bhasyam , Subodhini and other works composed by Shri Vallabhacharyaji. The simple Satvik and Scholastic life his father had moulded the young mind of Shri Gopinathji into adopting a life of self discipline and sacrifice.

The marriage of Shri Gopinathji took place at an early age before Shri Vallabhacharya had renounced and left the world. It is said that his marriage was performed in South. Shri Gopinathji had one son, Shri Purushottamji and two daughters, Satyabhamaji Betiji and Lakshmi Betiji.

As mentioned in “Vallabha Digvijaya” written by Shri Yadunathji, after the Asurvyahmohleela (Disappearance) of Shri Vallabhacharya, Shri Gopinathji had adorned the seat of Acharya of the Sampradaya and he was much venerated by various disciples. It is believed that he has done much for the propagation of Shrimad Bhagavata Purana.

After completing the ceremonial rites of his father in Varanasi, he had returned to Adel with his younger brother Shri Vithalnathji, mother and other members of family.

During this period, he had received a complaint form the Adhikari Krishnadas that the Gauda Bengalis to whom Shri Vallabhacharya had entrusted the seva of Shri Govardhannathji, were not fulfilling their duties faithfully. They had installed an Icon of Devi called Brinda near Shri Govardhannathji inspite of the protests from the management.

Inspite of the best efforts of Shri Gopinathji and Shri Vithalnathji the Bengalis refused to mend their ways and persisted in continuing the worship of Brinda, thus misusing the funds of the Mandir. At last the Adhikari was compelled to adopt coercive tactics. One day for some mysterious reason fire broke out in the tenements of Bengalis. So they ran helter-skelter to save their belongings. Taking this opportunity the Adhikari had the gates of the Mandir closed against them and thereafter entrusted the seva to Vaishnavas.

It is understood that Shri Gopinathji and Shri Vithalnathji had offered the interior seva of Shri Govardhannathji like cooking etc., to their relatives, but this offer was declined by them. As such the two brothers had entrusted the seva to Sanchihara Brahmin.

Retaining Krishnadas as the overall supervisor of the management of the mandir, they had returned to Adel. Thereafter they had made it a practice that when one of the brothers was there, other would take care of the seva of Shri Govardhannathji in Jatipura.

Shri Gopinathji then went on long trip of the whole of North, including Jagannathpuri, where his father had won a major victory over erudite scholars of Sankaramatha. After visiting several pilgrim centers and establishing the greatness of Shri Bhagavata Purana, he returned to Adel in V.S.1601.

He had performed one Somayagna in the tradition of the family and later performed one Vishnuyagna. It is said that Shri Gopinathji had collected lakh of rupees during this trip which he utilized in increasing the seva of Shri Goverdhannathji at Jatipura.

It was a practice with him, right from his youth to read Shri Bhagavata Purana regularly.He was so obsessed with its reading that he would not even eat unless he would complete Shri Bhagvata. Very much worried about this adamant attitude of Shri Gopinathji ,Shri Vallabhacharyaji had composed one Stotra containing one thousand names of Purna Purushottama Sahasranama , all extracted from Shri Bhagavta Purana and advised his son to read this work daily so that he could have the complete effect of reading Shri Bhagavata Purana. This “Purushottama Sahasranama Stotra ” is one of the original works of Shri Vallabhacharya and is much venerated.
Again in V.S.1618 he undertook a long tour of Gujarat, Sindh and Dwarka. Shri Gopinathji had been blessed with a son. Whenever Shri Gopinathji had gone out of Adel on his regular yatra of the country, he used to leave his son Shri Purrshottamji with his younger brother Shri Vithalnathji. Shri Purushottamji passed away at the age of 12 years before Shri Gopinathji had returned from his travels of Gujarat in the V.S.1620 after a lapse of nearly three years was divine hand behind this. As this turn of events came in his life, he recalled the words of his father who had predicted in confidence that the dynasty of Shri Gopinathji will not run long and that it would be only Shri Vitthalnathji and his family members who would take the responsibilty of carrying his tradition of Pushti Sampradaya.

After this event Shri Gopinathji entrusted the reign of the Sampradaya into the able hands of his brother and turned his face on again on wanderings. It is believed that during this period he had gone to Jagnnathpuri purposely and merged with the Swarupa of Shri Baladevji and disappeared. It is quite obvious that Shri Gopinathji was aware of how had turned his mind away from the household responsibities and adapted a way of Vairagya or detachment inwardly allowing his brother to take the greater part of the burden of the management of family and carrying the Sampradaya to its rightful course.

Even though he was no mean scholar,only one work credited to him is available . It is titled as “Sadhana Dipika”.
:: Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag::

Kankroli Vidhya Vibhaag : Saraswati Bhandaar

Vidhya Vibhaag at Trutiya Gruh – Kankroli:

If we peep into the past, before the independence of india, we tend to discover the rich heritage of indian culture. Today, due to westernization, this rich cultural heritage of india seems to disappeare day by day. One such important aspect of indian culture is our precious Religious Literature known as ‘Gyaan’ in form of rare and very old granthas that enrich our Vedic Literature. One such centre of collection of such rare, old and Vedic Literature is the ‘Vidhya Vibhaag’ at Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir, Kankroli. There is a very interesting history behind the migration of centre of Tritiya Gruh – Pushtimarg from Vraj to Asotiya and finally to Kankroli.

The Maharajas of Mevad had been the disciples of Goswami Acharyas of Trutiya Gruh -Kankroli since long. Due to which, the Maharajas of Mevad gave great respect towards these Acharyas and also provided them with every facility available. Kankroli and Asotiya Villages were gifted by these Maharajas to Goswami Acharyas of Trutiya Gruh – Kankroli. Thus Kankroli, at that time was fully administered by these Goswami Acharyas.

Kankroli Goswami Acharyas were already the great scholars as they belong to the most respected lineage of JagadGuru Shreemad Mahaprabhu Shree Vallabhacharyaji. These Acharyas were learned and great scholars in Vedic Literature , other shashtras and ofcourse in Pushtimarg. These Acharyas authored many important and useful granthas for Pushtimarg. One of such Acharyas in this lineage was PPG 108 Shree Vrajbhushanlalji Maharajshri (V.S. 1868) who became the Gruhadhish of Trutiya Gruh – Kankroli. Shree Vrajbhushanlalji Maharajshri was a great scholar, and kind hearted Acharya. During his time, the progress of culture, art and literature reached its apex. Apshri made tremendous effort to collect and archive the old and rare granthas of pushtimarg as well as other important sanatan dharm literature. Some of the granthas from this collection was also re-published through ‘Vidhya Vibhag’ – Kankroli by Shree Vrajbhushanlalji.

‘Vidhya Vibhaag’ – is not only now the centre of collection of literature and the centre of Academic activities but also thje centre of Arts like painting, poetry etc. ‘Vidhya Vibhag’, which was developed gradually by various Goswami Acharyas of Kankroli is today not much active. The centre was most active during the period between A.D. 1930-1940, when Tritiya Gruhadhish was Shree Vrajbhushanlalji Maharajshri and the Prof. Kanthmani Shastry was the administrator of Vidhya Vibhaag. Various other institutions were started under the Vidhya Vibhaag. The Institutions are listed as below:

1. Shree Dwarkesh Sanskrit Paathshala: The Branches of this were established at Mathura, Halol, Visnagar, Sankheda, Waghodia, Burhanpur and ofcourse Kankroli.

2. Pushtakalay (Library): Branches includes Shree Balkrishna Pushtimargiya Pushtakalaya, Dhandhuka, Bhadarva, Burhanpur, Dabhoi, Mehsana, Anand and Kankroli.

3. Swayam Sevak Mandal Vibhag: established at all over India.

The Administration of all these institutions was done under ‘Vidhya Vibhaag’ under the guidance of PPG 108 Shree Vrajbhushanlalji Maharajshri.

Apart from the above institutions, the institutions like ‘Dwarkesh Kavi Mandal’, ‘Dwarkesh Chitrashala’, ‘Dwarkesh Vyaayaam shala’, ‘Dwarkesh Vidvad shala’, ‘Dwarkesh Shuddha-advaita Brahmcharyashram’, ‘Dwarkesh Vishwa Vastu Sangrahalaya’, ‘Dwarkesh Ratri Paathshala’, Granth anveshan vibhag’ etc were also esblished and running.

Library at Kankroli:

According to the Radio Broadcasting on 25-09-1996, about the library at Vidhya Vibhag – Kankroli, about 50 thousand books are present and maintained in the library at Kankroli.

Library also contains many rare and historical collection of manuscripts. Amongst these manuscripts, the handwritten Tadpatras of many granthas of Shree Mahaprabhuji, Shree Gusaiji and other acharyas of Pushtimarg are included. The manuscripts of Sursaagar – collection of kirtanas by Surdasji (Ashtachaap) is also present. Amongst these manuscripts, some of them are not even published. Even the manuscripts of 252 and 84 vaishnava Vaarta are also included.

One of the sections of Vidhya Vibhag i.e. Dwarkesh Vaanchalaya, is till now maintained securely. In Dwarkesh Chitramala, various rare and old hand paintings are maintained. Mughal, Irani, Kangara, Rajasthani Style Paintings are included. The Pictures of Surdas, Tulsidas and the most important, the picture of Shreemad Vallabhacharyaji is also present here. Here, collection of National as well as International postal stamps is also present. Some of the publications from ‘Vidhya Vibhag’ kankroli is as below:

Online E-Books Books already published by Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag:
Sr. No. Book Name (pushtak name) Publication Year of Pub. Author Language


Trutiya Peeth Pranyas – Kankroli

2. Sarvottam Stotra Sachitra – Vyakhya Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Ni. Li. Pujya Goswami 108 Shree Vrajbhushanlalji Maharajshri Hindi

Shuddha-advaita Pushtimargiya Sanskrit Vangmaya – First Part

Parikh Dwarkadas Prakashan

V.S. 2020

Prof. Kanthmani Shastry
4. Prachin Vaarta Rahasya – Part 1 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag V.S. 1996 Parikh Dwarkadas Hindi/Gujarati
5. Prachin Vaarta Rahasya – Part 2 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag V.S. 1996 Parikh Dwarkadas Hindi/Gujarati
6. Prachin Vaarta Rahasya – Part 3 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag V.S. 1996 Parikh Dwarkadas Hindi/Gujarati
7. Kirtan Pranalika Of Shree Dwarkadhishji – Kankroli (divided into 4 parts) Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag
8. Kankroli Itihaas (Kankroli History) Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
9. Shri Giridharlalji’s 120 Vachanamrut – Part 1 Braj Bhasha
10. Shri Giridharlalji’s 120 Vachanamrut- Part 2 Braj Bhasha
11. Shri Giridharlalji’s 120 Vachanamrut- Part 3 Braj Bhasha
12. Shri Giridharlalji’s 120 Vachanamrut- Part 4 Braj Bhasha
13. Kumbhandas Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
15. Chaturbhujdas – Part 1 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
16. Chaturbhujdas – Part 2 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
17. Chaturbhujdas – Part 3 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
18. Chaturbhujdas – Part 4 Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
19. Vallabh VansVruksh Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
17. Telang Vansh Vruksh Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
18. Vratotsav – Tippani Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag
20. 252 Vaishnavas Vaarta – all three parts Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
21. 84 Vaishnavas Vaarta Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
22. Khat Rutu Vaarta Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
23. Vaarta Sahitya Mimasa Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Gujarati
24. BHav Bhavna Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
25. Vraj Parikrama Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
26. Kritan Panali By Shree Brajbhushanlalji Maharajshri Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi/Vraj Bhasa
27. Bhatt Padavali Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi/Vraj Bhasa
28. Govardhanleela (Surdas) Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
29. Shreemad Bhagwat Aur SurSagar Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
30. Shree Dwarkeshashtakam Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi/Guj
31. Burhanpur Shastrath Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
32. Sanatan Dharm Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
33. Sampraday Pradeep Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
34. Rasik Rasaal Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi
35. Braj Parikrama Kankroli Vidhya Vibhag Hindi

:: Trutiya Peeth Kirtan Pranalika ::

1.Janmashtami (Bhadra Krushna 8)

Sr. No
Utasav Raag

Janmashtmi (Bhadra Krushna 8) Jhang and Pakhawaj are played from the time of waking up of Shreeji


Shree Mahaprabhuji’s Pad

Shree Vallabh Shree Vallabh Shree Vallabh Guna Gaau

Jay Jay Shree Vallabh Prabhu


Jagaayive Ke Pad

Jagiye Brajraaj Kuwar


Kaleu Ke Pad

Chagan Magan Pyarelal


Shree Yamunaji Ke Pad

Jay Jay Shree Suraja Kalind

Aaj Bado Darbaar Dekhyo

Maayee Sohilara Aaj Nand


Mangal Bhog Sare

Mangal Mangalam Braj Bhumi Mangalam


Mangala Darshan

Naina Bhar Dekho Shree Nandkumar


At the time of Panchamrut

Braj Bhayo Mahar Ke Poot


At the time of Abhyang

Aapun mangal Gavee Raaniju

Mangal Gavo Maayee Saba Mili


At the time of Tilak

Aaj Badhayee Ko Deen Niko
Jasoda Rani Jayo Ho Suta Niko Dhanashri

10. Gopi Vallabh Bhog Aaye (In Jagmohan)
Aaj Van Kou Ve Jini Jaay Devgandhar
Yah Sukh Dekhori Tum Maayee Devgandhar
Janma Fal Manata Jashoda Maayee Devgandhar
Jhagareena Te Hon Bohota Khijayi Devgandhar
Jasoda Naal Na Chhedan Deho Devgandhar

11. Raaj bhog Aaye
Hon Braj Mangano Ju Braj Taj Aanat Na Jaau Dhanashri
Nand Ju Mere Man Anand Bhayo Suni Govardhan Te Aayo Dhanashri
Nand Ju Tihare Sukh Dukh Gaye Dhanashri
Brajpati Magiye Ju Data Param Udaar Dhanashri

12. At time of Rajbhog Darshan
Aaj Nandrai ke Anand Bhayo Saarang

13. At time of Bhog Darshan With Taanpura
Raaniju Jayo Put Sulacchana Purvi
Kanaiya Kab Chali He Payan Chayan Aur Purvi

14. Sandhya Aarti
Mere Man Anand Bhayo Gauri

15. Shayan Darshan
Mohan Nandrai Kumar Malav
Padhma Dharyo Jan Taap Nivaran Malav

16. At time of Jagaran Darshan Kanharo
Dhan Rani Jasumati Gruh Aavat Gopi Jan Kanharo
Gavat Gopi Madhu Mrudu Bani Kanharo
Pyare Hari Ko Vimal Yash Gaavat Gopangana Kanharo
Yah Dhan Dharma Hite Paayo Kanharo
Aiso Put Devki Jaayo Kanharo
Hari Janmat Hi Anand Bhayo Kanharo
Anand Badhavano Nand Maharju Ke Dham Nayaki
Janma Liyo Subh Lagun Vichaar Nayaki
Rang Badhavano Hon Vraj Mein Shree Brajraaj Ke Dham Nayaki
Aaj To Anand Maayee Aaj To Nayaki
Bhado Ki Aati Rein Andhiyari Kanharo
Andhiyari Bhado Ki Raat Kanharo
Aathe Bhado Ki Andhiyari Kanharo
Bhado Ki Raat Andhiyari Kanharo
Shravan Suni Sajani Bhaje Mandirala Bihaag
Ravare Ke Kahe Gop Aaj Vraj Duni Aop Bihaag
Jasode Badhayiya Bahdyiya Raiso
Shree Gopallal Gokul Chale Hon Balbal Maru

17. Chatthi Pooja
Aaj Chatthi Jasumati Ke Sut Ka Chalo Kanharo
Mangal Dyosh Chatthi Ko Aayo Kanharo

18. Mahabhog Darshan With Tanpura
Lalana Hon Vaari Tere Yaa Mukh Par Ramkali

19. Palana
Prenkh Paryankh Shayanam Ramkali

20. Nand Mahotsav Darshan
Sab Gwal Naache Gopi Gave Saarang
Aangan Nand Ke Dadhi Kado Saarang
Nand Ju Tihare Aayo Put Saarang
Nand Badhai Deeje Hon Gwalan Saarang
Aaj Mahamangal Maharane Saarang
Ghar Ghar Gwal Det He Heri Saarang
Nand Mahotsav Hon Badhakije Dhanashri
Tum Jo Manavata Soi Deen Aayo Saarang
Jasodarani Sovana Fulana Fuli Dhanashri
Rani Tero Chir Jiyo Gopal Dhanashri
Bala Mein Jogi Jas Gaya Aasavari

21. Palana
Jhulo Palane Govind Ramkali
Apne Baal Gopal Raniju Palane Jhulave Ramkali
Nand Ko Braj Palane Jhule Ramkali
Halaro Hularavat Mata Bilaval
Maayeri Kamal Naine Shyam Sundar Jhulat Hein Aasaavari
Phuli Chaayan Hularave Yashodaju Let Balaiya Bilaval
Vaari Mere Latakana Pag Dharo Cchatiya Aasavari
Tum Brajrani Ke Lala Aasavari

22. Aarti Time
Jasumati Tiharo Ghar Subas Baso Kanharo
Gahyo Nand Sab Gopin Mili Ke Dehu Hamari Badhai Saarang

:: Trutiya Peeth Mandir List ::


Sr. No



Established By


Shree Rajadhiraaj Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir


Shree Girdharlalji (Fourth)


Shree Mathuranathji Mandir



Shree Dwarkashish’s Swaroop in Chaudhary Baag. Later on was installed in the mandir by Shree Balkrishnalalji



Mandir of Shree Dwarkadhish



Mandir of Shree Dwarkadhish



Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir

Vad Nagar


Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir



Shree Dwarkadhish’s Chitra (Picture) was installed in the mandir. Later on the swaroop was also installed by Shree Balkrishnalalji



Shree Girdharlalji’s Bethak



Shree Giridharlalji’s Bethak



Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir



Shree Govardhannathji Mandir



Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir



Shree Mohan Prabhu (Raja Askaran’s sevya swaroop) Mandir



Shree Chagan Magan Pyarelal Ka Mandir



Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir



Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir

Beg Mevaad


Shree Dwarkadhish Mandir

Dev garh


Established Chitra Seva



Shree Balkrishnalalji’s mandir



Mandir (Swaroop Seva)



Mandir with Swaroop Seva

Dhaar (Malawa)

Unjha, Mahesana,Gofaria, Laganana, Kukarwada, Vilodara, Tentudan, Pilavai, Mansa, Charada, Samarkha, Kathlaad, Sarsa, Tarapur, Ghodasar, Haldharvaas, Mankani,Paanwad, Vasana, Dabhoi, Bodeli have Shree Dwarkadhish’s swaroop installed by Shree Balkrishnalalji.

P.P.G 108 Shree BRajbhushanlalji
Petlad, Charada, Sardhav, Bilodara, Sangali, Lagnej, Jetpur, Kukarwada, Tankaria, Anand, Kanjari.

:: Shuddhadvaita Trutiya Peeth Tilakayat Heritage ::

Family of Shree Vitthalnathji


Birth Year(V.S)

Birth Place

Shree Shobha Betiji



Shree Girdharji


Shree Govindraiji


Shree Kamala Betiji


Shree Devka Betiji


Shree Balkrishnalalji


Shree Gokulnathji


Shree Raghunathji


Shree Yamuna Betiji


Shree Yadunathji


Shree Ghanshyamji


Trutiya Peeth Tilakayat Life Sketches

Tilakayat Heritage of Trutiya Peeth – Kankroli ::

References: Trutiya Gruh Parampara by Vakpati Foundation

:: 14th Tilakayat of Trutiya-Peeth of Pushtimarg – H.H. P.P.G. 108 Shree Vrajeshkumar Maharajshri ::

Presently Trutiya Gruhadhish Goswami Shri Vrajesh Kumarji Maharaj appeared on V.S. 1996 Paush Sudi 10 dated 20.1.1940 at Kankroli. This occassion was celebrated with grand pomp which was unparalled in the history of Pushti-Sampraday.

Apshri is very genius having sharp intelligence since childhood. Apshri is post-graduate and has studied Sanskrit, Vedant, Dharmashastras, Vallabh Vedant, Indian Philosophy, Nyaya, Vyakaran, Mimansa and is well versed in Karmkand, Markandeya Vidhi, Yagyopavita, Lagna, Chhathipuja, Barhi Prastar etc. Apshri has profound knowledge of Subodhiniji, Brahma sutras, Anubhashya, Nibandh, ShriMad Bhagwat Gita, Shastrarth Prakaran, Vidvand Mandan, Shringar Ras Mandan, Shri Vallabh Digvijay and Sadhan Dipika etc.

Shri Vrajeshkumarji is excellent writer and author. Apshri has written several granthas viz. Bhashya on Chatushloki, Sampraday Kalpdrum, Shri Harirayji Vadavali, Shri Prabhu Avtar Vadavali, Bhashya on Sadhan Dipika, etc. And edited Shri Sarvottamji and Shri Vallabh-Vansh Parampara etc. Apshri has deep interest in paintings, singing and music. Several paintings in different types viz. Kishangarh, Nathdwara, Udaipur, Jaipur etc. have been created by apshri. Apshri is melodious singer, violin-player and classical composer. Apshri is good sportsman too and loves playing table-tennis. Such is an all rounder personality of Shri Vrajeshkumarji Maharajji having several divine qualities which makes apshri a most respected Dharmacharya of Vallabh Samparaday. Besides, apshri is most emotional worshipper of Prabhu Shri Dwarkadhishji. Apshri has deep knowledge of intricacies of Seva prakar and Pustimargiya Utsavs. Apshri is well versed with seva pranalika, Shringar Pranalika, Bhog Samagri Pranalika as well as Kirtan Pranalika, not only of Trutiya Gruh, but apshri knows characteristics of all seven Gruhs.

Shri Vrajeshkumarji Maharaj is the Diksha-Guru of lacs of disciples all over the world and has largest followers from all sections of society because apshri has wide spectrum of philosophy and religion and as such apshri is a secular creative leader of Sanatan Dharma and modern as well as ancient cults of Hindu faiths. Apshri has interacted with many Acharyas of different schools of thoughts and have very cordial relations with each one of them.

Apshri has married to Shri Rashmika Vahuji who is also scholar and very well versed in Pusti Margiya traditions and Suddhwait Darshan. Apshri is blessed with two sons (1) Shri Vagishkumarji , and (2) Shri Dwarkeshlalji and two daughters (1) Smt.Suchitraji and (2) Smt.Bhawanaji . Apshri has organized several Manoraths , Saptahs ,Kunwaras and Vraj Parikramas and thereby shared joy and sorrow, emotions and intellects of longer section of the society, which has earned great respect in depth of their hearts.

:: P.P.G. 108 Shree Vagishkumar Bawashri (Kankroli) ::

1. Detailed Profile of PPG 108 Shree Vagishkumar Bawashri
2. Events and Utsavs
* Janma Divas Utsav – 2009 at Nadiad – Photo Gallery
* USA Visit 2009 : Photo Gallery and Interviews

:: Profile of P.P.G. 108 Shree Vedantkumar Bawashri ::
:: Profile of P.P.G. 108 Shree Siddhantumar Bawashri ::

:: Encyclopedia of pushtimarg ::

Encyclopedia of Pushtimarg (A major research project)

Shudda-advaita Brahmvaad enjoys a unique position in the Pushtimarg. The students of this philosophy are required to grasp it fully. Up till now, fewer initiatives have been taken to make it understand, but the encyclopedia approach had not been taken by any other initiative. Due to this, several researchers are appointed under Dr. Vagishbawashri who is the primary editor of this encyclopedia. This encyclopedia would be published in Hindi in eight volumes. Each volume will have around 400 pages.
This would be probably the first publication in the history of pushtimarg
The famous publishing company of Delhi would be publishing this work.

Shree Vithalesh Vidyapeeth (Pushtimargiya Open University) ::



Many vaishnavs got basic knowledge of religious sect of PUSTI by shree vallabh vidyapith and they became more anxious to understand mystic principles of SHREE VALLABHA and to have sound knowledge of PUSTIMARG.

By considering request of vaishnavs RAJIVLOCHAN MEMORIAL TRUST have estabilished SHREE VITTHALESH VIDYAPITH which will function as an open university for PUSTIMARGIYA SAMPRADAYA.

SHREE VITTHALESH VIDYAPITH has estabished to function as an open university to impart sound knowledge of PUSTIMARG by doing correspondence with easy self-learning study material to make understand a mystic principles of SHREE VALLABHA.


To understand in details of mystic principles of SHREE VALLABHA and PUSTIGRANTHS.

By comparing with other religious fact, SHREE VALLABHA-SHREE VITTHALE has provided a “SARVOTTAM GRANTH “, which has to be studied thoroughly.

From June’2006 syllabus has been prepared in such a way that these simple -language study material of PUSTIMARG we understand well and then try to implement in our day to day life.

Study material will be in simple language, so that all vaishnava can read, follow it without help of anyone. For this an individual has to invest only 2 hours per month.

An individual has to read, learn and understand in detailed about this study material(pustigranths) which shows path of PUSTIMARG. This study a material is prepared by one who has sound knowledge of PUSTIMARG. These books will be sent to you by post or courier.

In the syllabus for basic layer 300 marks and other layers 400 marks objective questions are given, which has to be answered in the same order by an individual, who has enrolled his/her name for this course and sent this answer book to VITTHALESH VIDYAPITH, VADODARA by post or courier.



Application Form for Subcription:

Please fill the below Application Form 1 and 2 and send the hard copy by post/courier to us at following address. Please read the instructions while filling the form and send us the required documents and both filled forms mentioned in this application form.

Application Form 1: Shree Vitthalesh Vidyapeeth

Application Form 2: Shree Vitthalesh Vidyapeeth

Head office/Address to send us the Application forms for subscription:

Shri Bethak Mandir,
Kevda baug, (Dwarkesh Baug)
Madan Zampa Road,
Email: vakpatifoundation@vallabhkankroli.org

Course Contents:

Language: Presently Gujarati

Type of Exam: Objective

Exam Date: At the end of each year.

Total Degree Course: 7 Years

Foundation Course (1 Year)

Intermediate Course (2 Years)

Entire Shodash Granthas with Commentaries

Shree Vedantchintamani (Pt. Shree Gattulalaji)

Shree Sarvottam Stotra

Bhakti hans and Bhakti hetunirnaya (Shree Gusaiji)

Shree Vallabhashtakam

Prameyratnarnav (Shree Lalubhattji)

Shree Saptashloki

Shuddha-advaita Siddhant Pradeep (Shree Maganlal Shastri)

Shree Madhurashtakam


Shree Giriraajdharyashtakam

Shruti Geeta

Shree Hairaivangmuktavali (12 Granthas)

Shree Vallabhsakhi

Shree Vallabhakhyaan

41 Padas of Shree Yamunaji

Nitya Leela by Shree Hariraiji

Mul Purush by Shree Dwarkeshji

Graduation Level (2 Years)

Post Graduation Level (2 Years)

Nibandh – Shastrarth Prakaran (Trans: Lallubhai Parekh)


Nibandh – Sarvanirnaya Prakaran (Trans: Sundarlal Vakil)

Anubhasya (Brahmasutras)

Nibandh – Bhagwatarth Prakaran (Trans: Nanulal Gandhi)

Subodhratnakar (based on Shree Subodhiniji)

Shree Govind Swami Kirtan Sangeet Academy ::

More information coming soon.

:: Charnamrut Magazine ::

Charanamrut Raspan Sample Issue: March-April 2006

Charanamrut Raspan Sample Issue: Jan-Feb 2007

Subscription for Charanamrut:

Please fill the below Application Form and send the hard copy by post/courier to us at following address. Please read the instructions while filling the form and send us the required documents mentioned in this application form.


Shri Bethak Mandir,
Kevda baug, (Dwarkesh Baug)
Madan Zampa Road,

Email: vakpatifoundation@vallabhkankroli.org

Application Form to Subscribe Charanamrut (download)

shree vallabh vaishnav elite forum ::

:: jan kalyan yojana sahay ::

Jan Kalyan Sahay Yojana (People’s Welfare Scheme)

Organised by Shri Vakpati Foundation

One of the objects of Shri Vakpati Foundation is to undertake multifarious activities with a view to help the weaker section of the society to mitigate their sufferings to the extent possible by the Trust. Needy people face difficulties in procuring adequate medical attention and enough food stuff as well as to provide education to their children.
Our Upanishads have stressed the importance of all three aspects. It said :

1. Sharir Madhyam Khalu Dharm Sadhanam.

And Aarogyam Sapvattm cha Shuddhannen Jayanti Dhi.

Specifying medical help to needy.

2. Annam Braimeti Vyajanat.

Specifying help for food.

3. Saa Vidya Ya Vimyuktaye.

And Vidya Shakti Samstanam.

Specifying need for education.

In view of these scriptures in our Dharmashastras, the Trust has sponsord People’s Welfare Scheme in all three categories.

:: Pushtimargiya Pathshala ::



Today, when several athiest organizations are trying to demoralize and deviate entire world, It becomes necessary to protect our developing generation who would give this world a new and properous future. It becomes our utmost important duty to inculcate and maintain religous values in our younger generation. With the vast expansion of organizations that are constantly trying to demoralize our children, as a sanatan hindu, we should become vigilant and start inculcating our kids deligently with our religious values.

In our society all elders,parents are very much conscious about this, but they don’t know what to do. In order to avoid such complexity in our society, we have to inculcate our religious values from child-hood only, so that when they grow, they should be in position to discriminate certain things and also they can stand for our religious values, as there is lot of criticism for our hindu religion. Our motive is very clear that they should in position to justify for each and every religious values, so that no one can critise our religious values. This is not just for the welfare of an individual but also to make healthy society and nation. Everybody wants to impart a sound religious knowledge, but they don’t know. By giving advice to youth, we can’t change their path and mind. For this concrete plan is required.

In this direction efforts are being made. Some places pustimargiya pathshala are running. But again this is at small scale compare to other religious strategy. It is mandatory to inculcate religious values in our children at right stage only.

In context of this, SHREE VALLABH VIDYAPITH is established by SHREE VAKPATION FOUNDATION (VADODARA) by trutiya gruh of kankroli. Since several years, we are running correspondence course for pustimarg. But we would like to reach out to maximum small children. For this we need to start pathshala at every corner of the street in villages and cities. But, we are unable to start in this way at large scale, because of scarcity of quality of teachers and volunteers. Only alternative is that all the parents should impart sound knowledge of pustimargiya in their children at every walk of life.It is certainly not difficult task, way we ask our children to do school homework. We make them to do this work by hook or crook. With the same motive why can’t we put our best efforts to inculcate religious values, which will help him/her at every stage of life. We need to think very seriously.

By knowing this scenario SHREE VAKPATI FOUNDATION has systematically planned to impart sound knowledge of PUSTIMARGIYA for k.g. to 10th std. students. Compilation and Publication of PUSTI BAL POTHI PART 1 TO 4 in Gujarati, Hindi and English is done for basic knowledge of students and their elders can understand well. If any one is interested to run vaishnav pustimargiya pathshala and take sole responsibility for the same are requested to contact us.In order to start and to run pathshala SHREE VAKPATI FOUNDATION will give all necessary suggestions.

For coming future, to impart religious values is really a vital job. If we get away from our responsibility, then we will be responsible for any complexion in our society in future. So from each and every family, all parents have to take up this moral responsibility.

Vaishnav volunteers, community or organization has to come forward to take up this valuable work and for detailed information and books they can do correspondence to Shree Vakpati Foundation, Vadodara.

Note: This pathshala has began with three languages.(gujarati,hindi and english).

We have started a new Series for Kids to Learn Pushtimarg. We have developed several programmes for educating Kids about Pushtimarg in the form of Power Point Presentation/ Downloadable PDF / HTML as well in English Language. Please see the following Table to download each programme available:

Pushtimargiya e-Camp for Children (New)
Sr. No. Title View the Presentation Online Download PDF
1 Pushtimargiya Paathshala Class -1 Click Here
2 Pushtimargiya Paathshala Class -2 Click Here
3 Pushtimargiya Paathshala Class -3 coming soon
4 Pushtimargiya Paathshala Class -4 coming soon

Pushtimargiya Paathshala Reference e-Books and materials(for Download)
Sr. No. Title Download (Gujarati)
1 Pushti Bal Pothi – 1
2 Pushti Bal Pothi – 2
3 Pushti Bal Pothi – 3
4 Pushti Bal Pothi – 4

The above books are used to conduct the Pushtimargiya Paathshala.

:: Sanskaar bodh exams ::
:: Rich Heritage of Dhrupad Sangeet in Pushtimarg::

Rich Heritage of Dhrupad Sangeet in Pushtimarg:

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Indian Classical Music.

Chapter 2: Relation of Rasa and Music

Chapter 3: Importance of Kirtan Bhakti?

Chapter 4: Introduction to Dhrupad Dhammar Style of Composition and Tradition in Pushtimarg.

Chapter 5: Nitya Kirtan and Utsav Kirtan Pranalika (i.e. Routine) explanation.

Chapter 6: Listen to the Ragas in Audio (Downloadable).

Chapter 7: Trutiya Gruh Kirtan Panalika.

Chapter 8: Pictures of Musical Instruments

Download the complete article (pdf)

Dhrupad Singers in Pushtimarg – An Introduction to Bhakta Poet Singers in Pushtimarg:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Bhakta Poet Singers

Chapter 2: Ashta-chaap in Pushtimarg (coming soon)

Chapter 3: Chaap and corresponding poet chart

Download the complete article (Pdf)

:: Rich Heritage of Dhrupad Sangeet in Pushtimarg::

Rich Heritage of Dhrupad Sangeet in Pushtimarg:

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Indian Classical Music.

Chapter 2: Relation of Rasa and Music

Chapter 3: Importance of Kirtan Bhakti?

Chapter 4: Introduction to Dhrupad Dhammar Style of Composition and Tradition in Pushtimarg.

Chapter 5: Nitya Kirtan and Utsav Kirtan Pranalika (i.e. Routine) explanation.

Chapter 6: Listen to the Ragas in Audio (Downloadable).

Chapter 7: Trutiya Gruh Kirtan Panalika.

Chapter 8: Pictures of Musical Instruments

Download the complete article (pdf)

Dhrupad Singers in Pushtimarg – An Introduction to Bhakta Poet Singers in Pushtimarg:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Bhakta Poet Singers

Chapter 2: Ashta-chaap in Pushtimarg (coming soon)

Chapter 3: Chaap and corresponding poet chart

Download the complete article (Pdf)


The deity (Swaroop) at the famous Vaishnav temple of Shri Nathadwara in Rajasthan (India) is known as SHRINATHAJI. This Swaroop in reality is that of Lord Shri KRISHNA . SHRINATHAJI represents child Krishna when He was seven years of age.

This Swaroop is not man made. He manifested Himself from the mountain Goverdhan, (also known as Giriraj) some 500 years ago. He is the same Krishna, who had saved the people of Goverdhan area, from the heavy rainfall caused by the anger of Lord Indra. He lifted the whole mountain with His left hand and protected the people of that area from the rain, for seven days. Because of this, He is also known as Shri Goverdhan nathji. The name was then shortened to SHRINATHAJI.

The story of SHRINATHAJI’s appearance goes back to the year 1408. A village by the name of Anyor lies at the foothills of mountain Goverdhan, near Mathura in north India. There lived a cowherd Sadu Pande. His cows were going at the top of mount Goverdhan for grazing. One of the cows would go to a particular spot and would discharge her milk there. Upon inquiry, a stone, which resembled a raised hand, was found at the spot. People started worshipping this place and offered milk, fruits, etc. This unknown God fulfilled their wishes.

The worshipping lasted for almost 70 years. Then on the day of the appearance of Jagadguru Shri Vallabhacharya Mahaprabhuji, in the year 1478, the whole figure emerged from this spot by itself. People asked Him who He was and He said, “I am Lord Krishna of Saraswat Kulp. I have reappeared in this Kaliyug. I will be known by the names of Shri Devdaman, Shri Indradaman or Shri Nagdamanas.” Shri Devdaman, eventually became known as SHRINATHAJI.

Shri Vallabhacharyaji traveled the lengths and breaths of India for almost 18 years of his life to propagate Hinduism. On one of such tours at Zarkhand, (in the year 1492) Lord Krishna appeared before him and said,” I have appeared as Lord SHRINATHAJI on the mountain Goverdhan. Go there to meet me. I am eagerly awaiting your arrival.”

Shri Vallabhacharya immediately left for Goverdhan area. He stayed at the house of Sadu Pande. He started climbing mount Goverdhan to meet SHRINATHAJI. Lord Krishna in the form of SHRINATHAJI knew that Shri Vallabhacharya has arrived there and was coming uphill to meet Him. He started descending and met Shri Vallabhacharyaji half way on this mountain. They greeted each other very warmly, meeting was very emotional. The incidence became known as PRATHAM MILAN (First Meeting).

Six years after this historic meeting, Shri Vallabhacharyaji started constructing a temple for SHRI NATHAJI on top of the mountain Goverdhan. He appointed Priests (known as Mukhiajis), Singers, Musicians, Cooks, and Manager etc. to manage the Seva-worshipping- of Lord SHRINATHAJI. The sanctum of Shrinathaji was thrown open eight times a day at fixed intervals for Darshans which enabled devotees to see Him for a few moments. The rituals followed during daily worship were intended to evoke memories of Shri Krishna’s childhood lilas (pastimes) at Vraj.

Aurangzeb was a Muslim King and a cruel ruler in the areas of Vraj, Goverdhan etc. He was an anti Hindu and started destroying Hindu temples. SHRINATHAJI temple’s safety was at stake and it was decided to relocate the Swaroop at some safer place. In the year 1669, the swaroop was transferred to a decorative chariot and a journey started. After traveling for almost two and half years, a new location was selected to sattledown. The place was in Rajasthan in the village of Sinhad. Actually it was a palace of the King of Udaipur, who was a great disciple of Shri Vallabhacharyaji.

There was another reason behind the selection of this place. When Shri Gusainji Shri Vithalnathaji)- a son of Shri Vallabhacharyaji, traveled to Dwarika from Vraj, he would stop at the palace of the King of Udaipur in Sinhad. Princess Ajabkumvarbai there was a great disciple of Shri Gusainji and was always performing seva of Shrinathaji. Shrinathaji was playing the game of checker with her everyday. He would travel from Vraj to this place. Ajabkumverbai thought that this must be uncomfortable for Him. She requested Shrinathaji, instead, to stay there permanently. He promised her that He would do so in future only. So the migration from Vraj to Sinhad was also to fulfill the promise of Shrinathaji to Ajabkumverbai. Sinhad is now known as Shri Nathadwara.

The present temple of SHRINATHAJI at Shri Nathadwara was built in the year 1728. The swaroop of SHRINATHAJI is four feet high and is black in color. The left hand is raised-inviting disciples to go to Him. Right hand fist rests on the waist. The swaroop has a square Pithika, containing nine objects: Two Cows, A Cobra, A Sheep, A Man(Muni), A Parrot, Two men (Munies), A Snake, A Lion and Two Peacocks.




Thousands of years have passed due to the separation from the Divine Shri Krishna, the affliction and agony which have been generated in the heart due to the separation from Shri Krishna in me in the form of Anand-Bliss, I, that individual soul, in whom the sentiment has become dormant, dedicate my atman–soul, my body , the senses, the vital breaths, inner senses and their attributes, my spouse, home, family relations, punya and papa, that one earns by way of effects of previous births related to the Divine Krishna, (the most dear to Gopi-folks). I am your (devoted) devotee. “Oh Krishna! I am yours”.

(Utter the sacred formula of Shri Brahma Sambandh Mantra During the period of rendering of divine services)




Sureshbhai and Vishakhaben had one son named ‘Chintan’ and one daughter named ‘Mansi’. Sureshbhai obtained the degree of M.B.A. and he was working as manager of one Company. Vishakhaben was working as a Lecturer in college after obtaining the degree of M.A. with Sanskrit. Both of them had undertaken profound study of the books of ‘Pushti Marga’- (The path of Divine Grace). Both lived a life devoted to rendering services to Divine, reciting the name of God in accordance with the expectations of Shri Mahaprabhuji. Son ‘Chintan’ was a student of computer Sciences. Mansi appeared for XII standard examination in science stream and was eager to join the medical college.

In the later part of the noon, on Sunday, all of them were ready to have a cup of tea, after enjoying bed-rest. Mansi came with a cup of tea.

Sureshbhai said while enjoying tea, “Vishakha, Chintu will be 21 years old after a week. Manu has completed 18 years.”


“Chintu will complete his study after some months. Time is ripe for him to become a householder”

“Pappa, I am your son, ready enough to shoulder my responsibilities”

“Chintu, all fulfill their responsibilities by earning money, marrying and living a life of mundane existence. However, the aim of human life will be fulfilled by performing the most important responsibility.”

“What is that, mummy?” Chintan asked while Mansi was listening to talk with great attention.

“You may quote the words from a Sanskrit poet or literary artist by uttering maxims or proverbs. The speech resulting from knowledge derived from experience, way be he most effective.”

“Mummy, tell the inner meaning in Gujarati so that we understand. My brother and I do not know Sanskrit, do we?”

“Let him tell the truth uttered by seers from their lives. To eat, to drink, to sleep, to become perturbed with fear after being awakened, to continue one’s progeny these four actions are performed by animals. Shri Thakorji has gifted human being with intellect and extraordinary sense of thinking power. If a human being passes his life like an animal by fulfilling these four actions, wherein lies the significance of being born in the species of a man?”

“What extraordinary work should be undertaken by a man?” Chintan asked.

“To implement the conduct according to religion, the species of a human being is the only species out of 84 lakhs of species wherein a man can live life in accordance with the code of conduct of religion. Human life without religion is an animal life, life according to rules of religion means Human life.”

“Religion means to take bath three to four times in a day, to observe untouchability, to consider others as inferior to us, to become angry in all day-to-day routine conversation, doesn’t it” Mansi asked.

“Our house/home is an exception. We see the routine of life as said above, at the houses of aunt (paternal), aunt (maternal) and the neighbor Varshaben. Is that religion, mummy?” asked Chintan.

“No, it is not religion. On the contrary, it is irreligion, and misunderstood by you. Therefore, the seers say also that the true religion lies in passing the life in a cave. To understand its essence, it is necessarily to understand scriptures. Our Shri Mahaprabhuji commands that we should render divine services to Shri Krishna and recite His name after proper understanding. To-day, many vaishnavas imitate the lives of others without understanding the principles of religion. So, irreligion has taken the place of religion in their lives” Vishakha made it more explicit.



“Now I have understood what you mean to say. Tell me the meaning of religion according to the opinion of Shri Mahaprabhuji.”

“The word ‘Religion’ has originated from the word “To Sustain, To Accept or To Acknowledge” (The system marked with faith in God). Religion means to live life in accordance with the rules of religion. There are four important bases or rules of religion: Truth, Mercy, Penance and Piety. These four matters are very indispensable in each and ever conduct of our life. A man who speaks untruth, who is merciless, who takes delight in sensuous pleasures and performs unholy acts, cannot be called a religions-minded person, even if he may be rendering divine services to Shri-Thakorji, reciting the name of God and hymns, and going to the company of good persons.” Sureshbhai explained.

“Shri Mahaprabhuji says – there vital subject-matters are important in religion. Who am I? Where have I come from? What am I supposed to do? Our Pushti Marg gives replies to these questions. The soul residing in human body: the soul is only a part of the supreme soul. He possesses two important attributes of the supreme soul-existence and consciousness, but his Bliss, the most important attribute, has become latent. (It has become dormant). Therefore, the soul becomes weak and feeble and was separated from the supreme soul, before thousands of years. He roamed in the midst of 84 lakhs of species. He forgot the supreme spirit. He forgot his most original Form. He is meticulously in search of bliss as he lacks Bliss. How can he obtain true Bliss from the objects of the world? Our life is like pilgrimages In search of true and perfect Bliss. While understanding that pilgrimage, we want to reach God-Divine-Krishna who is perfect Bliss. This is the aim of our life. Religion is the means to attain this end. ‘Pushti Marg’ is our religion. While observing rules of ‘Pushti Marg’, we can attain Shri Thakorji, perfect Bliss”. Vishakhaben explained the matter patiently. She waited to inhale breath.


“What is the meaning of ‘Pushti Marg’-The path of Divine Grace?”

“’Pushti’ means Grace of God. It is the chief power of Divine. That unique power has no relationship with cause and effect-The grace is like the down power of the rainfall. There is no rule when and where to rain? Similarly, Shri Thakorji is fully independent. He does not bind by any rules, regarding on which He should bestow mercy and to what extent. ‘Pushti Marg’ means Shri Thakorji will bestow divine grace on individual souls and he will come graciously before him of his own accord.”

“Mummy, does it mean that we have to do nothing? We have to sit just by folding our hands and feet and wait for the descent dance of divine grace.” Mansi asked.

“No, it is the nature of Shri Thakorji to bestow divine grace. It is the nature of and embodied soul to love Him. To love Shri Thakorji whole-heartedly should become the nature of an embodied soul. This is devotion. It means that we should render devotion to Shri Thakorji. Anyone who loves Shri Thakorji is entitled to acquire grace in the form of love of Shri Thakorji. Therefore, we should proceed along the path of devotion so that Shri. Thakorji might come graciously before us by bestowing divine grace.” Sureshbhai explained this situation in detail.


“Papa, how can we render devotion?” Chintan asked.

“Devotion means to render devotion with love to Shri Thakorji. We should maintain super natural attitude towards Shri Thakorji. We should keep the approach to Shri Thakorji as a devoted devotee. Once we know the greatness of a supreme being, we are attracted to Him, We cultivate attitude of love toward Him. We acquire knowledge regarding supremacy of Shri Thakorji by narrating meritorious deeds of Shri Thakorji and by reciting devotional songs in praise of Shri Thakorji. We develop feelings of attraction toward Shri Thakorji and we develop love for Him. We like to Remember Him of. In addition, after development of Love, a desire arises in our heart to render divine services and Devotion to Him. Adamant love toward Him develops because of rendering divine services whole-heartily with love He will be propitiated and bestow us the gift of his Vision in reality. The result will be – we will love him more than our own self-will. This is the stage of achievement of Devotion,” said Vishakhaben.

“I could not understand the supernatural attitude towards Shri Thakorji,” Chintan said.

“Devotion means affection towards Shri Thakorji. The husband and wife have affection towards each other. In the routine life of the world, there are three conditions of affection:-unflinching ness, sacrifice, dedication. If the husband and wife remain faithful to each other in an unflinching manner, their love will develop. Otherwise, it will lead to development of situation of a divorce. The

husband and wife should unite physically and mentally. This mental union leads to spirit of unflinching ness. The husband should sacrifice with pleasure for the sake of happiness of his wife. Wife also should sacrifice with pleasure for the sake of her husband. The wife should dedicate everything to her husband; she should render services to her husband and consider the happiness of her husband as her own happiness “Sureshbhai said.

“These three qualities /virtues are necessary for devotion. The devotee should belong to God only in an unflinching manner. He should not think of anything else, He would not demand anything from other; he will not go to any other God or deity. This is the first condition of unflinching attitude.”

“An unmarried girl sees many boys intending to marry but she selects ultimately one. She will relate to him. At that moment, she will forget all others. She will show unflinching ness towards her future husband. Similarly, in the path of devotion of Pushti Marg, a person attains an initiation of religions rite (Diksha) of the eight-lettered sacred formula from a spiritual Teacher belonging to progeny of Shri Vallabh. This is known as our relationship with Shri Thakorji. After putting on a necklace of Tulsi beads, Divine Shri Krishna is our Ultimate lord. We are His devoted servants, “shrikrishnaha sharanam mama”- Shri Krishna is my protector and I am surrendered to Him”.


“Why should we worship to Shri Krishna, and not to any other God?” Manasi asked.

“Shri Krishna means Parabrahman, Supreme God. ‘Krush’ means omnipotent; perfect bliss. There are no other God, deity, or goddess who is as competent and blissful as He is. He is supreme. It is His inherent nature to downpour divine grace. He can be won only by affection. There is no other supreme essence greater than He is. If we want to accept surrendership and dedication, we should accept surrendership and dedication to supreme spirit only.”



“Is there any necessity to under go religions rite in order To accept surrendership and dedication to Shri Krishna?” Chintan asked.

“Every religion accepts the significance of a spiritual preacher. We can realize ‘Govind’ only through the medium of spiritual preacher. We cannot cross the ocean of mundane existence without spiritual teacher. The spiritual teacher performs the initiation of a religious vow; he gives us new life-news birth. Therefore, he is called Brahma. The spiritual teacher protects us .He keeps us steady in our self-discipline pertaining to religion. So he is known as Vishnu. The spiritual Teacher avoids all the obstacles that come in the way of Self-discipline pertaining to religion. He causes to further/Increase our spiritual progress. Therefore, he is ‘Shankar’. The Spiritual Teacher enables us to attain Parabrahman-Divine. Therefore, he is called Parabrahman as our eyes are veiled by the crust of ignorance, or our Eyes are blinded by the darkness of ignorance, we cannot visualize the vision of Shri Thakorji. The spiritual teacher applies a rod in our eyes with collyrium of knowledge of Divine. Then we can know, see and visualize Shri Thakorji with or physical eyes and the mind.”

“Shri Mahaprabhuji is the supreme spiritual preacher of all these spiritual preachers. Other spiritual Teachers are art-incarnations of divine, ’Kala Avatar’ or ‘Gunavtar’s as Shri Mahaprabhuji is the incarnation of Lotus-like face of Shri Thakorji, He is Supreme, Perfect God ( Purna Purushottam) in reality. It is our great fortune to obtain the supreme spiritual Teacher like Him.”

“But Shri Mahaprabhuji is not graciously present now.” said Manasi.

“The progeny of Shri Vallabh through his sons, grand sons and Grand grand sons-is continued graciously. Shri Raghunathji says,”Svanurupasutaprasuhu” The father takes birth once again as a child. Therefore, a chain of male-descendants of family lineage of Shri Vallabh represents Shri Vallabh. He graciously resides in their hearts-Thus Shri Mahaprabhuji Himself performs the initiation rite of religions ceremony of Brahma Sambandh. Therefore, Shri Mahaprabhuji is our Divine Teacher.”


“What is the initiation of religions rite of Brahma-Sambandh? Who should take it? When should it be taken? How should it be taken?” Chintan asked.

“Oh, brother, you are unique! How dare do you ask so Many questions? “Manasi added with laughter.

“Never mind. Your mummy is habituated to give replies as she is a professor!” Sureshbhai said.

“In every religion, there is and initiation of religions. Moral Teachings and vision of God Initiation of

Religions vow means the ‘Mantra’ or sacred formula that is given by performing religions rite through the proper medium of spiritual Teacher. The spiritual teacher imparts moral principles to a person taking religious vow for undertaking self-discipline (sadhana) in accordance with religion. A person taking religions vow is required live life in accordance with moral Principles. A person following the code of conduct according To religion and moral principles will obtain vision of God.”


In our ‘Pushti Marg’, there is an initiation of religions rite known as ‘Brahma-Sambandh’. It unique and true episode of the life of Shri Mahaprabhuji is closely associated with this ‘mantra’ –sacred formula. Shri Mahaprabhuji himself refers to this divine episode of his life in the ‘stotra’-A hymn of verses-‘Siddhant Rahasya’. Shri Mahaprabhuji was at that time only 14 years old. During his four of pilgrimage of India on foot, he came to Gokul graciously. He saw with his own eyes a very sad picture and experience of the mental states of people, i.e. learned persons, spiritual teachers and Hindu religion and its different sects; many hindrances were created in implementing the code of conduct of religion; the human life was extremely miserable and it suffered from tyrannies.” He was undergoing tremendous upheavals in his heart.”

“What kind of upheavals in his heart?”

“Many celestial souls of golokdham of permanent divine sports of Shri Thakorji have come on earth Shri Thakorji has sent me for their upliftment and salvation again. These embodied souls have ingrained many faults and frailties by roaming in the ocean of world of egoism. They have totally forgotten Shri Thakorji. They do not know what they are and they have adopted other degenerated means by giving up the right path. Shri Thakorji is innocent-free from all kinds of faults. The embodied souls are permitted with faults and frailties. He thought seriously of the problem of uniting these embodied soul with Shri Thakorji or Divine.’

“How could he find out the solution of this problem of this mind filled with divine agony?”

“It was the eleventh day of the birth half of Shravana month in the year V.S. 1549. Shri Mahaprabhuji‘s mind was absorbed in meditative mood at night at ‘Govindghat’ on the banks of the river the Yamuna. Shri Govardhannathji manifested Himself in front of Shri Mahaprabhuji. He gave Shri Mahaprabhuji the proper path and ‘mantra’ or sacred formula to unite embodied souls with Divine. That sacred formula or ‘Mantra’ is Brahma Sambandh mantra.”


“Why is it called ‘Brahma Sambandh’ mantra?” asked Manasi.

“In Vedas, the word ‘Brahma’ is used for the word God. The Brahma is ‘All-pervasive’-Brahma pervades all the particles of the universe. ‘Brahma Sambandh mantra’ means the sacred formula by which the embodied soul is reunited with ‘Parabrahman Bhagvan’- (supreme God).”

“In our ‘Pushti Marga’, this mantra is known by other two names (1) ‘Gadya mantra’, the mantra in prose and (2) ‘Nivedan mantra’, the mantra of dedication. This mantra is in prose. So it is known as ‘Gadya mantra’. With the help of this mantra, an embodied soul makes A statement of promise, avow, that he has consecrated and dedicated everything he had to Shri Thakorji and He has decided to live like His devoted servant or a devoted devotee. So it is known as ‘Nivedan Mantra’.”

Sureshbhai added and said.

“Why do we find 84 letters in it?” Chintan asked.

“There exists a spiritual form of figures in scriptures. The number ‘84’ cannot that human body is acquired after roaming in 84 lakhs of species. If we do not attempt for god-realization, we will have to roam once again in 84 lakhs cycles of birth and death. This ‘mantra’ enables a person to get an entry to make efforts for God-realization by rendering divine service with affection and love to Shri Thakorji through the medium of ‘Brahma Sambandh’. So it contains 84 letters.”

“Mummy, will you speak to me that sacred formula?” Mansi said.

“’mantra’ means a secret matter. It is kept secret. Moreover, the ‘mantra’ is very holy. After taking bath, during the time of rendering divine services to divine, the mantra is spoken, uttered and its recitation takes place. It cannot be uttered at any place, at any time before any person.”

“But you can tell us the inner meaning of this mantra. Can’t you?” Chintan asked.


“Yes, its inner meaning can be uttered. It is like this as thousand of years have passed due to separation from the Divine Shri Krishna, the affliction and agony which have been generated in the heart due to the separation from Shri Krishna in the form of Anand-Bliss, I, that individual soul, in whom the sentiment has become dormant, dedicate my atman-soul, my body, the senses, the vital breaths, inner senses and their attributes, my spouse, home, family relation, punya and papa, that one earns by way of effects of previous births related to the divine Krishna, (the most dear to Gopi-folks). I am your (devoted) devotee. Oh, Krishna! I am Yours.”

“The language is very difficult. I could not understand it’s meaning properly.”

“I also” Manasi added.

“The speech of God is always difficult to understand. Have people understood properly Vedas? Oh, we have not understood Shrimad Bhagvad Gita! Even the most devoted, gracious, and the first disciple Shri Damodardas Harsaniji obtained the vision of the Supreme God and the command given by Shri Thakorji to Shri Mahaprabhuji but he could not understand the meaning of the command. He was able to understand it when Shri Mahaprabhuji explained the meaning of that ‘Mantra,’” said Sureshbhai.

“You just then explain to us also, please.”

“During the marriage ceremony, the husband and the wife utter the sacred formula of ‘sapta padi’. Brahma Sambandh is the supernatural marriage of the Embodied soul with the supreme soul. The marriage ceremony is performed under the witnesses of a Brahmin and family. In ‘Brahma Sambandh’, ‘Tulsi’ (A bead of a plant) is the witness. Brahma Sambandh mantra is as if the sweetest dialogue between the embodied soul and the supreme Soul.”



“In the beginning, the embodied soul says something about him to the supreme spirit. He confesses his mistakes. He accepts his drawbacks and frailties of natural. He says as if, oh God! You know first about me before accepting me as your own. I am very much filled with a number of faults and frailties, later on, do not blame me. I am separated from you just as a small, ignorant child is separated from his mother in a fair; I am separated from you before thousands of years-innumerable years. The child that was separated from his mother forgot his mother, due to the period of separation of years. I forgot your relationship with you. As a result, I did not experience any agony, suffering to meet you at all.”

“One minute, Mummy. You had started in the inner meaning the pleasure of affliction and agony. Dear mother, tell me, how can there be pleasure of affliction and agony, instead of suffering?” Chintan asked.

“You had gone to Bangalore for the purpose of study. In the beginning, at night, you were reminded of your own house. There were reminiscences of all of us. You explained pain of separation, sorrow of separation, but you said that your memories or reminiscences pertaining to us were sweet. Affection in union and separation bestows and confers on us happiness in their own ways. Happiness lies in the misery out of separation. So it is called ‘pleasure’ of agony and affliction.”

“O. K. I have now understood properly.”

“The embodied soul says that I suffer from these Faults and frailties. After listening to the talk of the Individual soul patiently, the supreme soul says, you also know me properly, so that, later on you might not repent of making a wrongful choice. I am ‘Bhagvan’ Krishna. All-pervasive Parabrahman assumes the personal form, as the sweetest, the loveliest one in accordance with the emotions of a devotee. He is then known as Bhagvan’. He becomes the object of the sense of the eye of a devotee. There is also another meaning of the word ‘Bhagvan’. ‘Bhagvan’ means sovereignty. The word ‘Aishvarya’ (meaning sovereignty) has come from the word ‘Iswar’ (God). Power-wealth and affluence-energy, God means one in whom, these three things are possessed in a supreme manner. Bhagvan means one who possesses supreme power, supreme wealth and the Supreme energy. He is the supreme owner of the three worlds. Nobody is superior to Him. So the name of Bhagvan is Krishna – due to His virtues, He is known as ‘Krishna’ because of supreme competence and perfect bliss. ‘Krishna’ also means ‘Black’. The color ‘Black’ is the color of divine ‘shrungar’ (Decoration with ornaments and garments) – an erotic love. An erotic love (shrungar Rasa) is the best of all the sentiments. Krishna is the king of this unique kind of sentiment, He is the sweetest, the most auspicious, the most lovely, perfectly blissful. The supreme soul says, I am Krishna of this type. Tell me, if I meet you, will your mind not wander elsewhere? Say yes, or no. The individual soul is extremely pleased. He becomes ready to dedicate his own self to ‘Bhagvan’.”

“Mummy, in the original inner meaning, you also had Utter the word ‘most dear to Gopi-folks’,” said Manasi.

“Yes, that word was not found in the original ‘mantra’. The grand son of Shri Mahaprabhuji, Shri Gokulnathji, had used the word in the bracket, to clarify the innate form of Shri Krishna.”

“Krishna is one, as we say. He manifested his two forms and performed two types of divine deeds by assuming the innate form of ‘Dharma’; he killed Demons, decreased the burden of the earth, ruled over the Kingdom and preached ‘Gita’. With the help of ‘Dharmi’ innate form, He performed Blissful divine deeds in order to bestow the gift of his perfect bliss to the Inhabitants of Vrija; He performed divine deeds like ‘Makhanachori Lila’, ‘Dana Lila’, ’Ras Lila’, ’Annakut Lila’, etc. this innate form of Dharmi, Krishna was the life-breath of Gopi-folks. So the word ‘Gopijanvallabh’ is used for those divine deeds. Shri Gokulnathji further clarifies the mater that (THE GOPIJAN VALLABH -VERY DREAR TO GOPI FOLKS) an embodied soul unites with Krishna, the Gopijan vallabh, with whom the ceremony of Brahma Sambandh has been undertaken.”

“Yes, I have understood the point. Tell us in detail”

“The supreme God gives us His acquaintance. The Individual soul is read to select the supreme spirit. The supreme soul demands from the individual soul ‘paheramani’ (that is, gifts given to the bridegroom and his relatives by the bride’s side). In marriage, the bride’s side gives gifts to the side of Bridegroom and his relatives. The individual soul has roamed through 84 lakhs of species. He has acquired two vital vices because of those roaming in different births. He has acquired egoism. He thinks, whatever I am, whatever I do; it is all due to my power and my intellect. He believes his body to be ‘soul’. He remains busy with fondling his body. The scriptures call it ‘egoism’. A notes vice is ‘mine ness’ – the sense of ownership. The individual soul relieves that whatever I have, and whatever I have acquired, I am the owner of all those belonging and I can use them as I like it. The scriptures call it “Feelings of mine ness”. In the language of Vedanta, the word ‘The world of egoism’ is used for these two words-egoism and mine ness. If we judge it impartially, we cannot do anything of our own accord, with the help of our desires and our power. The doer of Actions -The ultimate doer – is the supreme soul. Egoism is vain, untrue. The same thing can be said about ‘mine ness’. We are born empty-handed and we will die empty-handed. Whatever we have acquired does not belong to us. The supreme spirit has given it to us. It belongs to him. So feelings of ‘mine ness’ are also in vain. When these feelings of egoism are eliminated, the supreme soul accepts the individual soul as his own. He can experience God-individual soul as his own. He can gifts (paheramani) those objects which are the root cause of ‘I’ ness and mine ness of the embodied soul.”

“Which are those objects?”

“Our body which contains five senses of action, five senses of knowledge that motivate the body, and five kinds of vital breaths that keep him steady and calm, the inner senses that lie inside his head, like mind, ‘chhita’ – intellect and egoism. These objects increase and nourish our egoism. The wife or husband, son-daughter, family, house, wealth, the activities of this world and the next world i.e. life, after death, they all increase our feelings of ‘mine’ ness and Sustain them. The embodied soul dedicates all these objects, along with his soul to ‘Bhagvan’ Krishna. He accepts the servitude to God. He assures him to live a life as if he belongs to God.”

“Mummy, one doubt/query arises in my mind. The bride and the bridegroom- all the couples-perform marriage ceremony and the vows of ‘saptapadi’ under the witnesses of Fire and Brahmin. They utter sentences without understandings their meaning. They do not think about it seriously. Their married life, in fact, ends in affliction, quarries and miserable as they are not mutually dedicated to each other can’t it not happen in the case of ‘Brahma Sambandh’?” asked Chintan.


“It can happen, without fail. At the time of initiation of religious rite of Brahma Sambandh, the vow is taken by speech, by uttering a statement of self-dedication,. It should be accompanied by mental self-dedication and physical self-dedication. Dedication by speech is incomplete.”

“How can we undertake mental and physical dedication to Divine?”

“Shri Mahaprabhuji has shown us two methods. A person should always go on remembering dedication by speech in the company of divine devotees. The mind should be prepared accordingly for the implementation of self-dedication to Divine. The divine devotees obey in their lives that vow or promise to divine. We will learn and know from them the method of physical self – dedication to Divine, by living in their company. We will be inspired to perform physical self – dedication. When we think of the subject – matter in our mind constantly, it will be put in to practice and be implemented in our behavior”

“Physical self-dedication means rendering divine services to Shri Thakorji. Shri Mahaprabhuji commands that our mind should not wander here and there in the world but it should Be united with God and we should render divine services to Divine, physically and by wealth. It will lead to dedication of our feeling of ‘I’ ness and ‘mind’ ness to Shri Thakorji. They do not create any hindrance in our fulfillment of our aim of God – realization.”

“What so we mean by physical services and services in the form of wealth, money to Divine?”

“’Tanu’ means body. ‘Vitta’ means money, wealth. Bodily a divine services and divine services by money mean to render services to divine with the help of money eared by us and with the help of Shri Thakorji our body. When body renders divine services, there will be absence of ‘I’ ness and ‘mine’ ness. This is the most simple, straightforward way to avoid egoism and feelings of ‘mine’ ness.”

“By rendering divine services, we should offer all objects that we use, to Shri Thakorji and they should be used after making them ‘Prasad’ (objects offered to Shri Thakorji and accepted by him). This is the method of dedication or consecration. Thus, the vow by speech of ‘Brahma-Sambandh’ is fulfilled. This is the mystery of ‘mantra’ of ‘Brahma-Sambandh’.” Sureshbhai said while concluding the matter.

“After listening to your talk, I am ready to undertake the vow of initiation of religions rite of ‘Brahma-Sambandh’.” Chintan said in enthusiasm.


“What should I do, first of all” asked Chintan.

“Your Pappa and I have Kankroli, as ‘Gurughar’. It is desirable (not necessary or compulsory) that all the members of the same family as one ‘Gurughar’. First, you should make a request to most venerable Maharajshri. You should observe fast on a particular day. On the next day, he will give you ‘Brahma-Sambandh”. Vishakhaben said.

“Why should we observe fast?”

“It has been commanded in scriptures that we should observe the vow of fast to attain mental purity. If it is possible, you should drink only water on that day. If that is not possible, you might take milk and fruits. You should recite as many names of eight-lettered sacred formula, (Ashtakshara) as possible. You should recite as many hymns of ‘Shri Yamunashtakam’, ‘Shri Sarvottam Stotra’ etc. You should observe self-control and remain in ‘sattvic’ mood. Keep your mind away from worldly affairs and activities. By observing these rules, you will acquire necessary purity of soul for the performance of initiation of religions rite.”

“This can be done. But what kind of religions ceremony takes place at the time of ‘Brahma-Sambandh’?”

“The divine teacher will give you the time for taking bath. After taking bath, you should put on clothes, used for the first time. The male person should put on cotton dhoti used for the first time or silk-dhoti and silk upper garment. A woman should put on a trouser, a saree, a blouse that should be used for first time. After taking ‘Charanamrut’, a man should apply ‘U’ mark on his forehead. The garments that are made wet during bath and the new towel should be kept in a new bag of silk or ‘Kantan’.”

“After taking bath, the divine teacher will call you near Shri Thakorji. He will ask you to sit down. He will give you ‘Tulsi dal’ that should be kept in between two hands. You should keep your hands folded before Shri Thakorji. Shri Gurudev -Divine Teacher will ask you t o Uttar ‘Brahma-Sambandh’ mantra. You have to place ‘Tulsi Dal’ at the lotus-like feet of Shri Thakorji. This is the religious rite of Brahma-Sambandh. After completion of this rite, you should prostrate at your feet before Shri Thakorji. Shri Gurudev – divine teacher-will sit graciously at his seating place. You should offer money to him in accordance with your capacities. You should prostrate at his feet and touch his feet. Then you should ask him, what should I do? What is your command? You should live life in accordance with his command.”



“After the rite of ‘Brahma Sambandh’, what should be done by a vaishnavas and what should not be done by a vaishnavas?”

“You should abandon four things (1) Refuge of Other Gods – You should not accept refuge or shelter of any God other than Shri Thakorji. You should not accept surrendership of any other. You should not demand anything from any Gods or deity. You should not visit the temple of; any other God or Goddess at your own accord. You should not adore and worship them. You should not make a religious vow before them. (2) Company of Evil Persons – When our mind is distracted from Shri Thakorji and when we become extrovert by indulging in talks with them, it is known as company of evil persons and we should remain away from them. (3) Meaningless Talks and Discussions – We should remain away from indulging in meaningless talks and discussions. (4) Non-Dedication – Any object that has not been offered to and accepted by Shri Thakorji can be called Non-dedicated objects. They should not be used.”

“Say us, what should we do?”

“You should render services to Shri Thakorji everyday Morning, in accordance with the command of Divine Teacher. You should recite the hymns of praise written by Shri Mahaprabhuji, Shri Gusainji; you should recite the name of ‘Eight-lettered sacred formula’. At night, you should read, think on ‘Shikshapatra’, ‘Stories of divine devotees’ etc. by sitting in the company of your near and dear relatives.”

“You should remember that day-after-day; you should go on increasing the graph of Divine services-Good company-Recitation of meritorious deeds of Divine.”

“This can be done”

“Where there is a will, there is a way.”


We should render services to that divine form which has been adored worshipped by our divine teacher; the divine services should be rendered in accordance with the rules of self-dedication, undertaken by us before our divine teacher. Normally, we initiate divine services by offering crystals of sugar (Mishri). Then, when it is more convenient to us, we offer Banta, (a kind of sweet meat made of gram-flour), ‘Dudhghar’ (sweets made out of milk), ‘Sakhadi’, ‘Anasakhadi’, etc. items of food. During the period of rendering divine services, we should cultivate the innermost feelings in our heart, “Prabhu-Divine is my Lord; He is be-all and end-all or all in all; -I have dedicated all objects of mine to Him. NOW, after rendering divine services to Him, I would like to accept only ‘Prasad’. We find that (for the member of family) the items of food that is prepared to suit our comfort and conveniences, as a matter of priority, and in a certain proportion, is on the contrary forbidden like hindrances. It is good when all the members of the family accept and eat items of food that are dedicated to the Divine. We should select items of food in accordance with the seasons and in accordance with the regulations and limits framed by Shri Mahaprabhuji. While offering items of food to the Divine Form; it is not at all proper for a person to offer only a part of the item of food, while preparing the items of food; the remaining major part of food should not be used for household purpose. If God desires and wills, He will enjoy eating ‘Chhappanbhog’; otherwise, He might go outside graciously to eat and enjoy ordinary, non-tasty items of food. We should take into consideration the provision for God/Divine Form to go out of the house for play, accurately and in accordance with the seasons. Moreover, during the time of non-rendering of divine services, Divine Form should not be kept in the lonely place of our house for a very long time. The Divine Form will cause us to feel divine experiences provided we render properly divine services with great love. Experiences are indirect experiences. Here we acquire experiences and indirect experiences. Here we acquire experiences pertaining removal of prohibited actions and pleasure and propitiation arising out of under going the work of self-discipline. Other extra-ordinary experiences are narrated in a unique manner in the story – books of 84 vaishnavas and 252 vaishnavas.



In the path of divine grace, services to spiritual teacher have been given great prominence. Shri Damodardas used to say, “Which is greater? Donation or Donor”. This remark is worth meditating. An extraordinary importance has been given to devotion to spiritual teacher because while rendering services to spiritual teacher, we automatically render services to God that resides graciously in the heart of spiritual teacher, indirectly.

Spiritual Teacher is quite competent to do all things in consistency with devotion, as he is the means of devotion as well as the giver of the fruits of devotion. Krishna Bhatt, resident of Ujjain, also rendered services in reality to Shri Govardhannathji. God also used to indulge in talk and conversation with him but when he requested him to bestow the gift of vision of ‘Ras Lila’ (Sportive Dance of the Divine), He refused and said,” You cannot obtain the vision of ‘Ras Lila’ with your present body”. When Shri Gusainji knew about it, he said, “Shri Govardhannathji is a child. Come on, I will enable you to bestow with the gift of vision of Ras Lila’.” He held the hands of Krishna Bhatt, they went to Parasoli, and he obtained the vision of ‘Ras Lila’. This shows the supremacy of competence of divine teacher. Divine teacher can bestow us the gift of even divine body.

In the path of Divine grace, people render devotion to Divine Teacher in various ways. Here also we find the different kinds of physical services, services by offering wealth, money, etc. on auspicious occasions, he asks Divine Teacher to come graciously at his house. He offers gifts, etc. to Divine Teacher in accordance with his capabilities and enjoys Bliss. They celebrate the fulfillment of innermost desire of God on days of festival and on days of birthdays. He welcomes him and honors him; he also offers ‘a sacred silk garland’ (Pavitra).

To Divine Teacher and accepts it as the form of ‘Prasad’. The path of divine grace is based only on the depth of feelings that pervade in the heart of a devotee. Here, we also find the rendering of divine services in the form of garments, ornaments to Divine Form, for the whole year.

Only in the path of Divine Grace, there is provision for circular tour of Vrija in the company and footsteps of the Divine Teacher. The embodied soul considers his life to be self-blessed by remembering and recollecting the meritorious deeds of Divine at different places, in presence of Divine Teacher.

Some vaishnavas also render divine services to Divine Teacher, day and night, at a lonely place and they express their devotion to spiritual Teacher. The devotee attains the supreme kind of devotion, the mystery of divine deeds and guidance pertaining to God in accordance with his merits and worthiness. Dispassionate services rendered to Divine Teacher enable the devotee to attain necessary spirit of healthiness of human life and he achieves the most deserving fruit.


This kind of services is very difficult to attain in the path of divine Grace. In real sense, the most efficient divine devotees are attainable in the path of devotion. Yet, they will be available as long as the path of divine grace is in the blooming stage. We get an opportunity to render divine services to Divine Teacher and divine that resides in the heart of a devotee, while rendering services to divine devotees.

A person needs great patience in order to render services to divine devotees. We get many episodes from the lives of 84-252 vaishnavas. A person required to live life in accordance with the overall competence and supremacy of human nature, to remain away and unobstructed from all, fearlessness and worldly and Vedic duties. He should not waver his mind from devotion keeping firm faith in Divine, even under extraordinary circumstances. His extraordinary virtues are to think of the happiness of Divine, to render single-minded devotion to spiritual Teacher and keeping the feeling of self-identification with vaishnavas.

The illustrious examples of above are Krishnadas Meghan, Padmanabhadasji, etc. They have implemented the principles of Shrimad Vallabhacharyaji in their lives. We do get the vision of those unique types of vaishnavas, sometimes, in the present age but people do not largely pay attention to them. They do not like to make and exhibition of their virtues. Their Predominant characteristics are to keep an objective approach towards worldly dealings and to keep secret their devotion to Divinity. They have reached the stage of culmination after rendering services to Divine, Divine Teacher and divine devotees.

In case, we come across the divine devotees of the above-mentioned types, fortunately, by the grace of Shri Vallabh Prabhu, we should render divine services to them bodily, mentally and by wealth or money. They are also most capable of giving us many things. It is necessary for us to understand the most fortunate divine souls, who have undergone self-dedication, ceremony of consecration and union with God, as they attain the fruition of activities because of their gradual rendering of services to Divine Form.

It is necessary for us to get reminded of the important name of Shri Acharyacharana, once again. His name is “Pruthaksharana Margopadeshta”- the paths are different; means are different; so the fruits are also different. The scriptures have specifically written about the achievements of fruits by “Brahma Gyani” (Devotees seeking the path of liberation). A ‘Brahma Gyani’ is absorbed in Brahman and forgets his existence. He does not know about the arrangements after the attainment of God-Realization because there is no existence of an embodied soul. In the path of liberation also, the situation is similar because there is no existence of and embodied soul. After attaining any one kind of liberation, out of four kinds of liberation, the embodied soul is unable to upkeep his existence independently after attaining the lotus-like feet. So does not obtain the fruition of the activity of his Blissful stage. While the stream of devotion gets widened gradually in such a manner that the embodied soul imbibes the spirit of devotion in a very subtle seed form; gradually it develops in to Love, Attachment and Assiduous devotion (Vyasan), after taking in to consideration the devotion to Divinity with reference to fulfillment of inner most desires of Divine. Their bodies, vital breaths, senses, intense suffering and agony from the separation of Divine; these supreme feelings acquire more and more depth, profoundness and ultimately they develop divine Love, divine feelings and they become divine devotees. The desires of body, etc. have burnt; those ‘Pushtimargiya’ souls achieve at the time of their death ‘supreme God’ (Purushottam) in reality and they attain divine bodies.

It is worth meditating the famous remark of Shrimad Prabhucharana – “Krishnadhinatum maryada svadhinapushtiruchchyate.” There is ‘Maryada’ as long as the devotee is subject to God, independent; when the Divine is subject to devotee, there is development of Divine Grace. This kind of arrangement is in ‘Pushti Marga’. The Gopi-folks are able to attain this kind of supreme fruit. “Krishnoaham pashyat Lalitagatimtanmanana.” I am Krishna. Look at my gaits or way of walking. When they say accordingly, they are totally and completely identification with Krishna to such an extent that there is a complete union of their self with Divine Form of Krishna. Rasakhanji explains, “Tako Ahir ki chhohariya Chhachhiyabhar chhach pen nach nachave” (They ask Krishna to dance by inducing Him to give a glass of buttermilk). We get the vision of the most supreme stage of achievement of the fruit in above-mentioned remarks.




It is worth understanding for us to understand the nature of those divine devotees who have experienced fruition of the ceremony of ‘Brahma Sambandh’ because of divine grace of Shrimad Vallabhacharyaji. Those unique vaishnavas are extremely merciful, very gracious to bestow grace on others and they live ‘sattvic’ life. We get the vision of their inner form and nature from their thought-currents and their code of conduct. Their predominant characteristics are; they are extremely humble with feelings of servitude to God, full of divine sentiments and emotions and contain ‘Gopi bhava’ in essence. They assume all the marks of their path of devotion, sect. Their speech is extremely sweet, beautiful and charming. They experience always the excitement of feelings of Divine. When they meet a devotee of similar character undergoing assiduous devotion (Vyasan), their bodies and lotus-like faces achieve the excellent kind of beauty, brilliance and Light. We get the description of these kinds of persons in the book of divine stories, e.g. Kumbhandasji, Prabhudas Jalota, Padmanabhadasji, etc. In modern times, we also obtain the vision of similar kinds of some devotees. When two vaishnavas meet each other, they embrace each other with great pleasure, as they have known the mutual selves. There is absence of worldly dealings and feelings but this action (of embracing each other with pleasure) becomes spontaneous as both get and easy allusion to presence of Shri Vallabh Prabhu who resides in their hearts. When they see an auspicious ‘U’ mark on their forehead and a necklace of beads of Tulsi in their necks, they experience unique and unprecedented feelings in their hearts, like “Akhiyanmen Zalakat hai Giridhari”.

It is good for us to understand the supreme competence of pure self-dedicated vaishnavas. They show to each other the faults of ordinary vaishnavas, if they prefer. They explain to each other the code of conduct and principles and practice of the path of devotion that they follow. There is an over-all pervasiveness of material unhappiness everywhere but they explain to each other “how they can handle the period of stress and difficulties, they help each other in over coming physical and spiritual miseries. If they have achieved the fulfillment of mental services to Divine, those vaishnavas also bestow physical gift and spiritual gifts to others. Prabhuddas Jalota and Padmanabhadasji, etc, etc. are the Illustrious proofs of this evidence.

“Dasoham Krishna Tavasmi” (Oh, Krishna, I am your devoted servant or devotee). In these words, the main emphasis is on the word ‘Das’ (A devoted Devotee). At other places, the words ‘Aham Brahmasmi’ is uttered usually (Meaning – ‘I am Brahman’). Here the word ‘Brahmasmi’ might be forgotten and the only word ‘Aham’ remains. When the word ‘Aham’ remains, all means of self-discipline are destroyed.

Shrimad Vallabhacharyaji has grasped the words very fact fully. If the word ‘Das’ (meaning devoted devotee) is forgotten, he will remember the words ’Aham Krishna Tavasmi’; meaning – Oh, Krishna! I am yours”. If the later part’ Krishna, I am yours’ is forgotten, the words ‘Dasoham’-‘I am devoted devotee’ will remain and will remind him of great humility and servitude to God.





With the divine grace of Shri Vallabh Prabhu, the most fortunate souls are those who have achieved the fruition of ‘Brahma Sambandh’ (Union with Divine), have their outward divine forms. They manifest extreme humility and servitude to God; their conduct and thoughts are pure; their speech shows proper sense off discrimination. They are benevolent, non-egoistic and persons of mild, soft nature, outwardly, their body and actions are physical but day-and –night, their hearts, minds are overflow with spontaneous flow of devotion to Divinity. Their material/physical actions are meant for benevolence. These points are well illustrated from the lives of some of the devoted disciples of Shrimad Vallabhacharyaji and Shri Vitthalnathji.

(1) Padmanabhadasji:

He did not alter the betrothal of his daughter to another caste for the sake of observance of feelings of vaishnavism – thus he showed single-minded devotion to religion. He made arrangements of wealth/money to a merchant at the cost of religion (or righteousness) lest Shri Mahaprabhuji might face difficulties in items of food. This shows his devotion to Divine Form. He abandoned food and water when his Shri Thakorji went into the hands of moguls – this shows a miraculous example of giving up superimposition of soul on body. Due to scarcity of money, he offered only husks-of grams in different bowels and Shri Thakorji experienced varieties of tastes by eating only one item of food – this shows his supreme divinity. He told Shri Thakorji to go graciously at the house of Shri Mahaprabhuji to eat different items of food graciously but he refused and stayed at the house of Padmanabhdasji -this shows his supreme achievement of ‘Gopi Bhava’ (Supreme emotions to divinity like Gopi).

(2) Kshatrani of Mahavan:

A woman Kshatrani obtained four Divine Forms from the river Yamuna, yet she first obtained command from Shri Mahaprabhuji. Then she graciously installed four Divine Forms – this is the most supreme example of unflinching devotion to Divinity and single-minded devotion to Forms of Divine.

(3) Amma Kshatrani:

Amma Kshatrani did not give ghee from her house on the day of ceremonial offering to the dead father of Shri Mahaprabhuji. Yet, due to predominance of her love, He enjoyed items of food, for the second time, on the day of ceremonial offering to dead ancestor -this shows the supremacy of devotion.

(4) Narayanadas Brahmachari:

He provides an illustrious example of depicting the loves for the sake of happiness of Divine as he always washed the grass with a view to prevent dust particles in the milk that is offered to the Divine.

(5) Krishna Bhatt:

Krishna Bhatt always gave vaishnavas coming from Gokul and going to Gokul, money, garment, food, etc and he preached them that they should return after earning some money. This example shows the supreme virtues of being a vaishnavas from the lives of vaishnavas.

(6) Jagannath Joshi:

Jagannath Joshi saved the houses of Mavji Patel and Virajo, at Alina from being burnt, by placing a Tulsi leaf inside the circle of water -this shows the potencies of a vaishnavas.

(7) Nagji Bhatt:

Nagji Bhatt carries a bundle of mangoes on his shoulders and goes to Dwarka, are good for Shri Govardhannathji -hearing these words, he does not deter. Then he carried two bundles-one for Shri Navnitprabhu andanother for Shri Govardhannathji – he once again comes on foot. Those mangoes are accepted and offered to divine by Shri Gusainji. Thisshows great, surprising physical energy and perfect devotion to Divine Teacher.

(8) Dokari of Rajnagar:

Dokari of Rajnagar offers graciously to Shri Thakorji grains of Bajri. Shri Gusainji sees it after visiting her house graciously. His heart is overflowing with devotion to Divinity. This example shows the supernatural vision with reference to mutual love between a devotee and Divine Teacher and a devotee and Shri Thakorji; this is the essence of the principle of ‘Pushti Marga’.

It is unique to know the fortune of ‘Pushtimargiya’ devotees who are only capable of showing supreme physical energy as well as possessing the gift of bestowing grace on others. This is the acquaintance of pure Pushti souls.



After joining the path of Divine Grace, vaishnavas should take due care to see that they do not commit moral crimes. They create a delay in achieving the end of God-realization and the embodied soul becomes unhappy. Out of these moral crimes, there are two great moral crimes and we should observe necessary precaution.

One is acceptance of refuge of other Gods. There is no crime greater than that. Pushti Prabhu cannot tolerate that crime of embodied soul, at all. Remembrance of other God and acceptance of His surrendership; food offered to other Gods and their vision, heard from a non-vaishnavas, to listen to story of other God and to show attachment towards it,- these are all the gates of refuge or shelter to other Gods. One should not enter that gate.

The second great moral crime is acceptance of items of food, not dedicated to divine. There are many prohibitory elements in accepting things, not dedicated to divine. It brings forth disease, distraction of mind and other hindrances in our life. They are great obstacles in rendering services to Divine. “Anna dosh”, “Shravana dosh”, “Sparsha dosh”, etc. (to eat forbidden food, to listen to glories of other Gods, and to touch other Gods, etc.) make vaishnavas extrovert in all respects. He forgets recitation of name to God and decides to abandon divine services. The embodied soul becomes derogatory in conduct and an extrovert. It gradually leads to total destruction.

Third great moral crime is to indulge in meaningless talk and discussions. We should not speak much expect recitation of name of Divine or description of sports of Divine. We should speak minimum words in our day-to-day, worldly dealings. It is easy to find out the company of evil persons. As per the opinion of Shrimad Vallabhacharyaji, any kind of speech except this is related to divine shows the polluted, speech like debauchery. Due to this reason, he specifically commands i n ‘Navaratnastotra’,”Tasmat saratmana Nityam Shri Krishnaha sharanam mam” Vadadbhirev satatam Stheyamityev me matihi” – Meaning – one should live always and in all respects, by uttering constantly ‘Shri Krishna is my Shelter’. This alone is my conviction.

Shri Hariraicharana states 66 kinds of moral crimes.

To express feelings of anger before God, to look at woman in presence of God, to praise other Gods before divine, to state the desire of fruit by worshipping other God, to allow non-vaishnavas to get the vision of our Divine Form (Sevya), to dishonor vaishnavas guest, to speak untruth before spiritual teacher and God, to eat items of food of ‘Shraddh’ (An act of ceremonial offering to dead ancestors), to eat fruits, vegetable which are prohibited, to put on dirty dress while rendering divine services to Shri Thakorji, to perform illicit bodily action in the temple of divine, to listen to speech of condemnation of spiritual teacher or our supreme God, to eat items of food without obtaining the vision of Divine teacher or our Supreme God, to violate the commands of divine teacher, not to sit in posture of cross-legged before spiritual teacher ad god, to cross the Divine Form without paying obeisance, to show learnedness before spiritual teacher, to touch spiritual teacher and God by leg, to visit places of pilgrimage after abandoning divine services, etc., to demand the satisfaction of and ordinary desire to God, to test God, to keep the feelings of egoism at all places…….

These are all moral crimes. Keep your life busy with rendering services to divine and reciting the name of God, as much as possible. Many moral crimes are committed by us, knowing or unknowingly. We should try to propitiate and divine teacher for removal of these moral crimes. We should observe feelings of extreme humility and servilities to God.

We have already explained previously the supremacy of Divine teacher and his adoration. Accordingly, divine teacher is supernatural. If you have faith, believe that divine teacher is always with you as a witness in all respects and he helps us in all action and saves us from evil paths. An embodied soul should talk about all things to divine teacher, by maintaining perfect faith in him. The divine teacher will definitely give you guidance and help in all matters, whether they are worldly or supernatural. If any thing might create hindrance for you in worldly matters, he will not allow you to achieve the fruit of that action. The divine teacher alone looks after the spiritual welfare of the embodied soul. Therefore, his moral preaching is acceptable to us and they should be put into practice.

:: Bhakti and Bhakti Marg ::

* Introduction
* The Path to Realisation of divine being
* Bhakti in ancient times
* Other works of Shastra on bhakti
* Acharyas who have brought forward Bhakti Marg
* Meaning of the word : “Bhakti ”
* Kinds of Bhakti
* History of Bhakti
* Bhakti Described
* The Path of Growth of “Prema – Bhakti”
* Three Stages of Enhancement of Prema – bhakti
* Form of Devotion
* Two divisions of Bhakti : “Saranagati” and “ Samarpana”
* Samarpana : Surrender


Hindu religious literature, is of two types: Nigama and Agama . The Nigama scriptures are of divine origin, whose truths were directly revealed to ancient rishis (sages) in their deep meditations. The Agama scriptures are of Rishi origin and were written to explain the Nigama writings and make them understandable and meaningful to the general population. Nigama scriptures include the four Vedas and Upavedas. Agama scriptures include four distinct groups of writings:

* Kavya, Nyaya, Mimansa etc
* Puranas and Itihasas
* Darshan Shastra
* Smritis

In our eternal religion, the Vedas (Sacred texts) enjoys the unique position. They are considered as the ultimate means of knowledge. Vedas have emerged from the Brahman (impersonal personality) itself. Vedas existed since time immemorial as vibrations in space, some portions of which are believed to have been perceived by seers and transmitted accordingly via an oral tradition. The four Vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda are divided into four sections:

* The Samhitas – Contains the mantras and hymns
* The Brahmanas – The ritualistic teachings
* The Aranyakas – The meditational section
* The Upanishads – The mystic and philosophical section, also known as Vedanta, or the end of the Vedas, implying the culmination of Vedic thought

Introduction to Shudda-advaita Darshan as per TattvarthDeep Nibandha and Anu-Bhasya ::

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Introduction to Shudda-advaita Darshan as per TattvarthDeepNibandha
Summum Bonum of life
Pramana Chapter
Pramey Chapter
Samkhya System Nirakarana
Atomic Theory Nirakaran (Paramanuvaad)
Buddhist Theory Nirakaran
Vigyanvaad Nirakaran
Syaadvaad Nirakaran
Mimansakas and Naiyayikas Nirakaran
Mayavaad Nirakaran
Nescience (Avidhya)
Relation between Jiva and Brahman
Work, Knowledge and Devotion

Summum Bonum of life:

Tattvarth Deep Nibandha is one of the works of Shree Vallabhacharya, the exponent of the Shuddha-advaita system of Philosophy in India. His Philosophy of Shudda-advaita is explained at great length in his work Anubhasya, which is a commentary on the BrahmaSutras of Badarayan Vyas. In his Subodhini commentary on the Bhagwat, he has explained this philosophy also. His son Vitthaleshji and his descendents, Shri Purushottamji, Yogi Gopeshwarji, Girdharji, Murlidharji etc. also have explained this philosophy both by their learned commentaries on his works and also by their independent works. In all these works, has been discussed the problem of ultimate reality of the world and the summum bonum of life.

Every philosopher in every age has tried to solve this problem according to his light. In this world, the end of all activity is happiness. There is not a single person in this world who will welcome pain. Even those persons who commit suicide do so only out of utter disgust in life. When all hope of release from pain deserts them, they are compelled by circumstances to resort to suicide. But in their heart they desire happiness. One writer has said that all men by their nature desist from pain. Every one desires happiness. Shri Vallabhacharya, in his commentary Subodhini while explaining the purpose of life says ‘To all, two things are desirable –
1. Removal of pain
2. Attainment of happiness”.

Mere removal of pain is a negative side of the problem. So the attainment of happiness is also necessary. The Greeks called this happiness ‘well-being’.

That the highest human good is the well-being is universally admitted by all philosophers all over the world, both by the past and the present but there are different views to precise nature of well-being. Mr. Rogers in his ‘A short History of Ethics’ writing on this question says ‘the vulgar often identifies it with pleasure, wealth or honour, but these cannot be final ends, for some pleasures are not desirable, Wealth is only a means to well-being and honour is sought rather to increase our confidence in our own virtue then as an end desirable for its own sake. Plato pronounced the doctrine of an absolute good which is the prime source of the excellence of all good things. This also must be rejected because it is contrary to experience. The Cynics held that well-being is identical with the possession of virtue. This also cannot be accepted as final, since the worth of virtue has to be estimated by the nature of the mental activities to which it leads.

Moreover, regarded as a merely inactive possession, it is useless and almost meaningless. Aritotle defines ‘well-being’ as an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue in a complete life. This implies that as ‘well-being’ is not a subordinate end, it must be complete. It is an unconditional good, desirable for its own sake, and preferable to any other. Again, it implies that this activity must be conscious, and either purely rational or in obedience to pleasure. The Epicureans identified happiness with pleasure and Stoics with abstinence from it and life of complete self-abnegation. This is a how the problem of ‘well-being’ was solved by the Greek Philosophers. Latin Philosophers gave a new colour on this.

Hobbes understands ‘well-being’ in self-interest, in constant progress of desires towards of fulfillment. According to Spinoza, ‘well-being’ consists in ‘the knowledge of God’, who is the one substance embracing all reality within HIS own being. Butler and August Compte saw well-being in social good or altruism. According to Kant, distribution of happiness, in exact proportion to virtue constitutes Summum Bonnum. The German philosopher Fichti, Schelling and Hegel were rationally idealists. To them well-being meant freedom by the knowledge of self. The Utilitarian school of Bentham and Mill, which is described by Sidgwick as ‘Universalistic Hedonism’ defines well-being as the greatest happiness of the greatest number in society. According to this, the value of any kind of happiness is to be judged from its utility. From all these views, we learn that in the Western Philosophy, the problem of well-being is pursued variously by various philosophers. However all accept well-being as the supreme end of the life. It is either individualistic or universalistic. The Individualistic well-being is called Egoistic Hedonism. It teaches that the agent must, or ought to pursue, his own happiness. Thus latter is called universalistic Hedonism, which regards universal happiness as the end. Only the German school of rationalistic idealism sees happiness in the freedom by knowledge.

Now let us turn to the East. The earliest school that has attempted to tackle this problem, systematically is the Samkhya school of Kapila. According to this school, Summum Bonum is freedom from pain. Pain is threefold: – 1 The Internal (Adhyatmik) 2. the External (Adhibhautik) and 3. the Divine or superhuman (Adhidaivik). Of these the internal is two fold – bodily and mental. Bodily pain is caused by the disorder of the universal humours, wind, bile and phlegan; and mental pain is due to perception of particular objects. The external pains are caused by men, beasts, birds, reptiles and inanimate things. The superhuman pains are due to the evil influence of planets spirits, good etc. Release from all these kinds of pains is the end of human life. That constitutes final beatitude. The spirit experiences pain on account of its being under the influence of nature. If the spirit isolates itself from the influence of nature, it becomes free from pain. So spirit’s isolation from nature is the liberation according to the Samkhyas. When the spirit realizes the real character of the nature, it ceases to operate its influence upon him. Pantanjali said that the means of freedom from pain lies in the exercise of control over mind and senses. It is the want of control over these that is the cause of all troubles in the world. The logicians (Naiyayikas) assert that the knowledge of right kind which enables a man to discriminate what is ephemeral from what is permanent can help him to secure liberation from pain. That is the view of the Vaisheshika also. The Naiyayikas lay emphasis upon correct knowledge, arrived by logical methods of perception, inference, analogy and the verbal authority. The Vaisheshikas require the knowledge of seven subjects such as substratum, quality etc. which will explain the real nature of the things in the world. Jaimini required performance of sacrifice as a means to the liberation of Pain. Badrayan, the author of Brahman Sutras indicated the knowledge of Brahman, the supreme spirit for the achievement of the above end. Buddhism sees a means in self-effacement and Jainism in self-control and penance. To Shankaracharya, liberation is the removal of nescience by means of the knowledge of Brahman. Ramanuja couples the knowledge with work for that end. Thus various ways are suggested for liberation from pain by different schools. Vallabhacharya, the author of Tattva Deep Nibandha undertakes here to offer solution from his own point of view. For the sake of convenience, he divides his work into three chapters

1. Shastrarth
2. Sarvanirnaya
3. Bhagwatarth

In the first chapter he gives the interpretation of the scriptures; in the second, his verdict, on the character of the various scriptures, and in the third his exposition of the underlying meaning of Bhagwat.

The first chapter contains 104 verses. On each of these verses, he has written his own commentary called ‘Prakasha’. This elucidates in an explanatory manner, what he has stated concisely and pithily in the verse-part. To make clear the ‘Prakasha’ portion, Shree Purushottamji has written very able and learned commentary called ‘Avran-bhang’ which means breaking or removing of the veil. The obscurity of the thought in Vallabhacharya’s Prakasha is the veil, which he has removed by his commentary.

The first verse of the first chapter, he devotes to the salutation of Lord Krishna, whom he regards as the Supreme Lord. In the second Verse he stated the problem of this work. It is as he says, ‘emancipation.’ Only the Satvik and the votaries of God are entitled to it. It is for them that he undertakes to consider that problem in this work.

Every philosophical problem should be approached from four points of view viz.

1. Pramana
2. Pramey
3. Sadhan
4. Fal

Here emancipation is the fruit. Its real character should first of all be known by means of proofs. That will come under the Pramana section. Then the question of the main objects of knowledge, worth knowing will be discussed in Prameya Section. Then the various means for the realization of ultimate fruit will be explained under the Sadhana section. In the fruit section, the real nature of fruit will be explained. The first chaper i.e. Shastrath Prakaran deals with the Pramana.
Pramana Chapter:

Pramana means ‘Proofs of knowledge.’ Pramana is defined as ‘Pramakaran’ – an instrument of knowledge. ‘Prama’ is explained as ‘Yathartha Anubhav’ i.e. it must be direct cognition, free from doubt, perversion of facts or false reasoning.

The ‘Yatharthatva’ of ‘Anubhav’ is explained as ‘Tadvati Tatprakaaratvam’ for instance ‘Rajat’ (Silver) has Rajatva ‘Silverness’. So when we say ‘Rajat’ is ‘Rajatva’, it is ‘Yatharth’ (exact) cognition. The work ‘Karan’ means ‘Sadhaktam Kaaran’ i.e. the cause that is most essential in producing a certain result. So anything that is most essential in exact cognition of the object is called ‘Pramana.’

Here the question to be decided is what should be our ‘Pramana’ in the right appreciation of our problem of emancipation and understanding the ultimate reality of the world viz. Brahman.
In V. 7 Shree Vallabhacharya mentions only ‘Sabda Pramana’ as valid, (“Sabda Eva Pramanam”). The Materialist (Charvaka) recognizes only ‘Pratyaksh’. The pramanas considered by other systems are given in the below table:

Sr. No





Perception and Inference. Not in Vedas (Pratyaksha and Anuman)



Anuman, Pratyaksha and Shabda









Shabda Only.






Pratyaksh and Anuman



Pratyaksh and Anuman



Pratyaksh and Shabda



Anuman, Pratyaksha and Shabda



Anuman, Pratyaksha and Shabda



Analogy (Upaman)


Kumaril, AdvaitaVaad

Anuplabdhi and Abhav



Sambhav and Aitihya




Pramana Derivation Chart:


Chart 1: Pratyaksha Praman Chart


Chart 2: Sabda Pramana Chart

Shree Vallabhacharya rules out all except ‘Shabda’, because except ‘Pratyaksh’ and ‘Anumaan’, others are included under any of the first three. For instance ‘Sambhav’ means probability. This is included in inference. The fact of probability depends upon the statement, to be understood by inference. What is called ‘Chesta’ is humour.

It is mere continuity of a vague assertion of which the original source cannot be traced. It is open to doubt. So when it is open to doubt it is not a valid means of coginition. If however the original source is known and known to be trustworthy then, it is a case of Verbal Cognition (Shabda) Pure and simple. Similarly ‘Aitihya’ becomes a case of Shabda Pramana if it is given by a trustworthy person; otherwise it is no Pramana at all. Pratima when it is a correct word it is included under Pratyaksha and Anuman, otherwise it is not valid.

Thus having ruled out Sambhav, Chesta, Aitihya and Pratima we shall consider Upaman, Arthapatti and Abhav. Upaman means ‘Analogy’. It is illustrated by the example, “As the cow, so the gavaya”. Gavaya is an animal, which resembles a cow. The knowledge of the Gavaya here is got from the words ‘As the cow’. Therefore it is included under verbal cognition. Also here when we first see the animal Gavaya, we at once remember the cow which is seen. So it is perception which is here instrumental in giving us the knowledge that the animal like cow which we see is Gavaya. Or it can be included under Inference. Mr. Ganganath Jha in his translation of Tattva Kaumudi explains it thus –‘When experienced persons use a certain term in reference to a particular thing, it should be regarded as denoting it – specially when there is no function other than direct denotation as is found in the well-known case of the term cow applied to the animal genus ‘Cow’ (Major Premise).

The term Gavaya is used (by experienced persons) in reference to the animal similar to the cow (Minor Premise). Therefore the term gavaya must be regarded as denotative of that animal (Conclusion).
Thus this cognition is purely inferential. So this is rejected. Shri Purushottamji also in his Prasthan Ratnakar rejects it as an independent proof.

Arthapatti means ‘Presumption’. The Naiyayikas reject it because they maintain that its function is performed by a Vyatirekyanuman. The example cited here is ‘Fat Devdutta does not eat by day’. Fatness is the result of eating. Now if the man does not eat by day, he must be eating by night. So ultimately what is called ‘Presumption’ becomes the case of inference. Similarly in the case of latter, although there is not direct contact between the object and the senses, yet there is comprehension of the absence of an object through the medium of Visheshan Vishesyabhav. The absence of the jar, at a certain place itself in the form of vacancy; all faculties with the sole exception of the Sentient Faculty – are consequently undergoing modification and all these diverse modifications are perceptible by the sense; hence there can be no object.

So out of the list of 10 Pramanas, only three remain to be considered, Pratyaksh, Anuman and Shabda. Vallabhacharya believes only in ‘Shabda Praman’. Inference is dependent upon Perception. Inference without help of perception cannot give us knowledge. If the perception is invalid; the inference will be invalid. As inference is subordinate to perception, it cannot be accepted as an independent proof in the matter of the cognition of Brahaman. When we prove the statement viz. the mountain is fiery, we give smoke as its reason. But when we give reason, we remember the cases of smoke always associated with fire. We had perceived on a former occasion smoke, arising from fire. We had perceived all that where there was no fire there was no smoke. We remember this knowledge of perception and with its help prove the case in question. So inference as an independent proof has no value. This being the case in the matter of the knowledge of Brahman it is not accepted. Because it requires direct or indirect contact between the senses and the object to be cognized, Brahman cannot be thus cognized. Moreover perceptual cognition is very often erroneous, due to the defective function of organs. So it is also not accepted.

What is, then, this Shabda Pramana? It is the sentence of a trustworthy man. The word ‘Apta’ excludes all pseudo-knowledge. It should be self-sufficient in authority. All verbal testimony is not accepted as shabda pramana, but only those that lead to the knowledge of Brahaman. Judged by this test, out author mentions only the following four scripture as the testimony – the Vedas, the Gita, the Brahma Sutras, and Samadhi Bhasha of Bhagavata. The Jaimini Sutras are also to be included in this list if they do not conflict with these.

In the Bhagvata, there are three kinds of language. One is ‘Lok Bhasa’ i.e. the language similar to that used by wordly poets like Kalidas etc. The portion which contains description of time, place fights etc treated as ‘Lok Bhasha’ i.e. language similar to that used by wordly poets like Kalidas etc. The portion which contains description of time, place, fights etc. treated as Lok Bhasa. In the Prakasha it is illustrated by the line Athoshasi Pravuttayaam etc., i.e. when it was morning. Such Descriptive passages do not add to the knowledge of Brahman. Hence it is not included in the category of the word proof. The other kind of language is called ‘Paramat Bhasa’ i.e. the language in which the opinions of others are mentioned as in the example of ‘Shrutam DwaipayanaMukhaat’. This was heard from the mouth of Dwaipayana. This has no value for the knowledge of Brahman. Only the portion called Samadhi Bhasha is useful to us, because, in it, the truth, experienced by the author in his state of meditation is depicted. It being so, it can serve as a valid proof. Shri Vallabhacharya explains the word Samadhibhasha as ‘Samaadhau Swaanubhuya Niropitam Sa Samadhibhasa’. Such truth can stand all tests. It can never be errorneous. So in the matter of proofs, Vallabhacharya accepts only Shabda Pramana that which gives us the knowledge of transcendental subject i.e. Brahman and of this only.

The Vedas consists of two parts: – 1. Purva Kanda 2. Uttar Kanda. The former means samhitas and Brahman works, the latter means Aryankas and Upanishads. The subject of the former is Sacrifice and the latter ‘Knowledge of Brahman’. According to Vallabhacharya entire Vedas consisting of the above two parts and also of Arthavada etc. becomes Verbal Recognition. Jaimini will accept only the first part of the Vedas and reject the second as of no use for religious life. Shankaracharya on the other hand accepts only the latter and rejects the former as being useless. But Vallabhacharya accepts both. He does not take Vedas by half. To accept one part and reject another, is nothing but having the Vedas or cutting a body into two parts. In Vallabhacharya’s opinion, both the portions are important and complementary of each other. In all these four works, the principal subject dealt with is Brahman. So whatever doubts we have about Brahman should be solved by these four works. These works are not to be taken as separate proofs. Each succeeding work should be regarded as supplementary of each preceding one. Any doubt arising about any point discussed in any preceding work should be removed by reference to the succeeding work. For example if one, while reading the shruti passage “he is without hands and feet and yet He runs and holds”, has a doubt whether human hands and feet are denied here to Brahman or it is a general denial: then that doubt should be solved by a passage of Gita viz ‘He has hands and feet etc. every where). Similarly if doubt arises from the passage of Gita, it should be removed from reference to the Sutras of Badarayan and any doubt in that should be cleared from reference to Bhagavat.

The manusmriti and other Smritis are also authentic if they are not contradictory to the spirit of the Veda. But if it is asked, what should be done if there is in some portion inconsistency and in some contradiction. In that case our author says that it should be rejected. Anything contrary to the meaning of Vedas should be discarded.

Having mentioned the names of scriptures which he accepts as proofs of verbal cognition; Vallabhcharya says that all these works are unanimous in character in the matter of the knowledge of Brahman. Their principal meaning is God, the highest entity. That God is represented under various names in these works. In the Purva Kanda of the Vedas, He is represented as ‘Sacrifice’ in the Uttarkand as Brahman, in the Smriti works as Parmatman and in Bhagvat as Bhagwan or Krishna. These different names do not imply different Gods. God is one but is comprehenced differently. Work and knowledge are the powers of God. He reveals his power of works through sacrifice which is God’s form. The power of knowledge is revealed through his form of Brahman. As the Purva Kanda of the Vedas reveals only sacrifice – as part of God, it is partial revelation of the conception of God. Similarly the Uttarkand is partial, being confined only to be knowledge-aspect. But Bhagvata exhausts the full conception of God:- the work-aspect as well as knowledge-aspect. It is therefore complete exposition of God. In that work, God’s manifold sports are described exhaustively. So to understand the real conception of God, it is necessary that we should consult the Bhagwata without which our knowledge of Brahman will be only one-sided. The Vedas consider God analytically but Bhagvata considers it synthetically. It says that God is capable of assuming many forms.Everything that we see is God. Nothing exists outside God. So even sacrifice and knowledge aspects are not separate from God. They both exist in him. Thus the conception of God is considered synthetically by the author of Bhagwata. So for thoroughness in the comprehension of God, we must betake to Bhagwata. It cannot be dispensed with it. No doubt Gita and Brahman Sutra give the knowledge of Brahman; but they do not describe the bliss parts of God. For this reason Vallabhacharya adds Bhagwata to the list of the verbal proofs. Shankaracharya accepts only the Vedas, Gita and Brahma Sutras, but Vallabhacharya is not satisfied, with these three only. So to make the list complete, he adds Bhagvata.

In these scriptures three different means for reaching God have been mentioned. In this section, Vallabhacharya only gives a cursory glance of them. He reserves them for detailed discussion in the second section. The three names are work, knowledge and devotion. Ordinarily they are supposed to be different means Vallabhacharya also regards them different, but he says that their ultimate goal, when considered in their real light is one and the same. Jaiminiya lays stress upon work only as the path to reach summum bonum and Shankaracharya upon knowledge only. Ramanujacharya harmonises both these into only conception of workship.The teachers of the Devotional sect regards devotion as the only proper means. Thus divergent opinions prevail among the philosophers and thinkers regarding the adequate means of reaching God. Each school sticks to one particular means, which it considers to be the best of all the means. According to Vallabhcharya, each of these means should be harmonized with others, for the thorough comprehension of God. Each one taken separately is not sufficient to enable man to march onwards on the path of spiritual progress. Moreover for the right understanding of any thing, we must look at it from two points of view, externally and internally. The external view will reveal the object only superficially i.e. only the outside of it as it appears to the external senses will be known. This can be known when the object is viewed intrinsically. Our conceptions of work, knowledge and devotion should be viewed from both the sides. Mere internal view will not be adequate to give us complete truth. To say that only work is good, or knowledge is good does not give us the whole truth. The advocates of work or knowledge or devotion did not look at the problem internally. Hence they have erred in their judgement in regarding the particular means which they advocated as par excellence. Vallabhacharya examines the problem, internally. In his examination, he finds that really speaking there is no contradiction between these means. The contradiction that appears to us is only apparent, not real, because we look at the problems, from one angle of view i.e. from external view. But if we look at them from the other view, we shall understand their real nature and then the apparent contradiction will at once disappear. So, in Vallabhacharya’s judgment these three different means can be synthesized into one. Really speaking if we speak of our life in terms of geometry, then it should be conceived as a triangular figure-having three sides of work, knowledge and devotion. These sides must meet each other at their ends where the sides cease to exist separately. They are absorbed in making a figure called a triangle. In other words work, knowledge and devotion are necessary to make life. These three concepts should be merged each other into another. So that life is not this or that, but sweet harmonious amalgamation of all these-which will form one means of reaching God. Although Vallabhacharya has soft corner in his heart for devotion, he does not disregard other two. In verses 20-21-22, he explains the real meanings of work, knowledge and devotion. In ‘Gyannishtha Tada Gyeya Sarvagyo Hi Yadaa Bhavet.’ He explains the real nature of knowledge. What is knowledge? Is it one derived from pondering upon the sentence “Tatvamasi” etc.? No, such knowledge cannot reveal Brahman. It can simply give verbal knowledge but cannot reveal God. God is the ultimate goal of each means. If knowledge is unable to take one near God, it is useless. It is not worth its salt. The end of knowledge will be secured, if the knower has become possessed of the knowledge of all i.e. God. He must through knowledge realize the fact that in all objects there is only one thing. And that thing is God. The different objects that we see are His diverse forms. Behind these diverse forms, there lies the supreme entity of God. When one realizes this fact i.e. sees unity in the midst of diversity, is said to have got real knowledge. So in short, knowledge has its value if it enables one to realize the unity. Otherwise it is useless. It must make the knower understand that God is omnipresent. It brings home to our mind that He is everywhere. Such knowledge is necessary for one’s seeking God. Similarly work is not mere sacrifice and the rituals. His idea of work is explained in the line ‘Dharmanistha Tadaa Gyeya Yadaa Chittam Prasidati!” When the mind of the person becomes calm we must know that he has got the real sense of work. According to this view, the test of Dharmnistha lies in its being capable of making a man’s mind pacific and calm under all circumstances. Things might go wrong with him. The world may behave inimically towards him. All his hopes may fail and his plans may go amiss yet his mind remains cool and pleased. Its equipoise is never disturbed. The various distractions and troubles of the world will simply pass over the surface of the mind, but will not affect it even in the least. When the mind is so cultivated, it is said to have acquired the real purpose of work. One who acquires such an attitude of mind sees the hand of God behind all the worldly events. He will regard the world as theatre in which God enacts various scenes. Himself assuming various forms in order to play the role of various characters. So the happiness or misery, joy or sorrow, profits or losses have no meaning at all.

These are the external changes. This being the conviction of one devoted to the ideal of work, he never lets his mind ruffled. Tranquility and placidity is the test of the ideal of work. This is the underlying meaning of work. Such an ideal has its place in life. It is essential like knowledge.

Similarly the ideal of devotion is essential. But it is not simply ‘love’. It connotes a great deal. He explains it in the line ‘Bhakti Nishtha Tadaa Gyeya Yadaa Krishnah Prasidati”. When Krishna is pleased, the ideal of devotion should be supposed to have reached completion. The test of knowledge if Sarvagyata (knowledge of all) that of work “ChittaPrasannata” (Placidity of mind) and that of devotion, KrushnaPrasannata (grace of the Lord). If the knowledge does not conduce to the state of knowing God in all things, it is of no use. If the sacrifices etc. which we understand as work, do not free the mind from passions of greed etc. and make it placid, then they are not worth their salt. The Ultimate object of work is to make a man resort to the service of God. The devotion has its value only if through it a man becomes recipient of the grace of God. These are the three ideals of life, though treated separately, but really speaking they are one. They are rather stages on the path to reach god. The stage of knowledge is the first one, that of work(services) is second one, and that of devotion the third one. That is why Vallabhacharya mentions knowledge first in his Karikas. His message is that a devotee should cultivate all these ideals to perfection in order to reach the Summum Bonum. These three ideals must be merged one into another, to evolve out of that merging a new beautiful life of a devotee. So according to him, nothing among these ideals is antagonistic to each other. In other words the merging of life of a devotee is the complete ideal of the knowledge, work and devotion into each other. But these ideals should be understood in their real significance which are conveyed in ‘Sarvagya, Chittaprasannata, and KrishnaPrasannata”. In the absence of the fusion of these ideals, his life should be understood as ‘Imperfect’ and our author brings home to our mind by pointing out the futility of these separate ideals. In the Prakash, he explained this point by saying that just as a man who wants to cross the river must throw his body into it otherwise he cannot cross it, so also, one must throw one’s whole heart and soul into the realization of these ideals otherwise the end for which the ideals are meant will not be secured.

After having considered the ideals and their real nature, he tells us how to realize these ideals. The realization of the ideals depends upon the suitability of the surroundings but in modern times it is not possible. Environment is not congenial to men in all the cases. What ‘then under’ these circumstances should be done? To that he replies that even under most unfavorable, circumstances there is no need of becoming dependent. If it is not possible to practice the means preached by the scriptures, men should at least be devoted to Lord Krishna. His devotion is quite sufficient. This view he expresses in verse 13. Even the Kali age which is regarded as not favorable, will be favorable. But when? Only if man resorts to Krishna and dedicates himself to his service. So there is no need to be pessimistic. All the scriptures this way, are said to have understood the meaning of scriptures, others fail to understand them. If the interpreters of the scriptures tell anything contrary to this; they should not be listened to.
Pramey Chapter:

But what is this highest entity called God or Brahman? The author answers the question first by giving the Karya Lakshana of God and then by Swaroop Lakshana. By Karya Lakshana we mean, the concept of ‘God’ as expressed in the term of Karya i.e. effect viz world. The author says that if you put a question ‘ What is God?, then, I say that He is the creator of the world and the souls. The author of the Brahman Sutras also pursues this method of describing Brahman, in his second aphorism ‘Janmandhasya Yato’ i.e. God is one from which the world originates in which it exists and into which it finally is absorbed. So in the opinion of out author, the world and the souls are creations of Brahman. He is the material cause as well as the efficient cause. In order to understand the relation subsisting between the cause ‘Brahman’ and its effect ‘the World’ let us understand what is meant by cause.
A cause is that which preceding its effect is invariably concommittant with it and at the same time is not proved to be an essential and accidental circumstance i.e. three essentials constitute our notion of a cause
1. Priority to effect
2. Invariability with it
3. Its Non-accidentality.

The requisite priority excludes effect from being covered up by a cause. The invariability excludes all the accidental circumstances. In the production of a piece of cloth, an ass many by happen to bring the threads out of which cloth is to be made. Here although the ass exists before the cloth, still it is not the cause owing to its want of being invariably associated with the cloth. We cannot say that for the production of a cloth, the ass is necessary. All that is required is threads. They may be carried by an ass or by any other means. The priority of the ass being accidental, he is not a cause.

Again, the cause may be prior, and an unvariable concomitant yet it is not sufficient to be a cause, without being not unessential and accidental circumstance. The colour of the thread does exist before and is invariably connected with a piece of cloth. For this reason it may be the cause. But its not so. Because the colour of threads exhausts its casual power by contributing to the production of the colour of the cloth. In other words, the cause must be Ananyatha-Siddha. Having thus defined the cause, the author of Tarka Sangraha says that they are three kinds of causes

1. Samvaayi
2. Asamvaayi
3. Nimitta

The Vedantins accepts only the first and the last. Samvaayi Karan is the material cause and Nimitta Karan is an efficient cause.

It is explained by the illustration of threads which constitute the material cause of the cloth. Here the cloth is in an intimate relation with the threads. The relation between the material cause and its effect must be intimate (Samvett). Relation of threads with the loom is that of simple conjuction (Samyog). It is intimate relation and not conjunctional relation that is required between a material cause and its effect. This intimate relation subsists between the 2 Ayutsiddha objects i.e. objects out of which one continues united with the other so long as the other exists. This is in accordance with the views of the Naiyayikas. But Purushottamji in his Prasthan Ratnakar defines material cause as for e.g. The yarn is the material cause of the cloth because it is yarn that becomes manifest in the form of cloth. Cloth is nothing but yarn in a transformed condition i.e. the essence of the effect is the same as cause. So when an effect comes out form a cause, it means that the cause possesses that effect in it.

It is latent there, waiting for some external energy to bring it out. When it is brought out, it retains its character of the original substance. An ornament is an effect and gold its material cause. It is material cause, because gold possesses the same substance which is in gold. If the substance were not the same, the ornament would not have been made. So long the ornament remains, the substance of gold also remains. But when ornament is dissolved, the substance of gold is not dissolved. It remains the same in all its phases. So when any material retains its quality of ‘Identity’ between it and its effect, it is called a material cause. In other words that is the material cause which reveals its nature in the effect. This being the case, the material is always inherent in an effect. Without this cause, no effect is possible. The effect ‘Ornament’ is produced from ‘Gold’, because gold is inherent. The Nimitta Karan is the efficient cause. The goldsmith who makes ornaments is the efficient cause. For an effect, therefore, two things are necessary. Once the substance, out of which the thing is to be created and the maker, who creates it in accordance with his plan. The former we call a material cause and the latter, an efficient cause.

Let us try to understand what do these 2 mean? Are they both identical or different? Shri Vallabhacharya holds that in the case of the world and the souls, Brahman is both a material cause and efficient cause. We shall discuss here some important theories relating to this question.

The Casuality of the world is attributed to Nature in the Samkhya system and to atoms in Vaisheshika System. In his Anubhasya, Shri Vallabhacharya has proved the falsity of the samkhyas claim in favour of nature, on the strength of scriptural evidence.Some of the chief points emphasized there in refuting the PrakrutiKaranta as under:
Samkhya System Nirakarana:

RachananuPateshascha Nanumanam (2-2-1). Prakriti according to Samkhyas is Jada. The attribute of Kartutva belongs only to Chetan. Therefore Jad Prakruti can not be a cause of the cosmos.
Pravruteshcha (2-1-2): If Prakruti is admitted as a cause, the Jeeva’s activity or engagement into various affairs of life would not be possible. The activity needs impulse from something, endowed with conscientiousness. But Prakruti is destitute of such consciousness. So she can not be a cause.
Payombuvaschettatrapi (2-2-3). This is advanced against the argument that Pravruti is possible in the case of Prakruti. Just as waters present wonderful spectacle in the foam, by producing diversity of colours; in the same way Prakruti will also manifest activity of its own accord. But this argument does not hold good. Even in the motion of waters, there is the hand of Chetan at work. It is Chetan that imparts motion. So the analogy cited does not support the causality of Prakriti.
Vyatirekanavsthiteshchanapekshatvat: (2-2-4): This is directed against Swatah Parinaam Samarthya of Prakriti. If Prakriti be capable of evolving herself, then there will be no end of an effect i.e. cosmos. It will always continue. But we learn that just as the effect (cosmos) has its origin, so it has ultimate end also. A time will come when this continuity will be disturbed. So it is wrong to hold that Prakruti unaided by any other agency evolves cosmos out of herself.
Anyatraabhavascha Na Trunadivat (2-2-5): The Samkhya Vadi seems to argue that grass-blade and leaves etc. grazed by cattle turn themselves into milk. This turning is not due to any external agency. It happens in the natural course. In the like manner, Prakruti is also capable of self-manifestation.

The Sutrakara Challenges this argument by a meet counter reply. “Turning into milk”, referred to above is not slef-evident. It is caused by the action of Chetan which appeared in “grazing”. If this turning into milk does appear only in a particular part of the body, why dos it not appear in horns etc? This proves that the position taken by Samkhya is false.

6. AbhyupagamepyatharBhavat (2-2-6).
1. To establish causality of Prakriti it should not be said that like a cow going to her calf naturally of her own accord, Prakriti reveals activity for the enjoyment of Purush. Even if such an argument were offered, its validity at once falls down, owing to the absence of Pragyakaaritva in her. So mere Prakruti can not be a cause of cosmos.

Now he proceeds to refute the causality of Prakriti, action under the influence of Purusha.

1. Even this position is not tenable. Prakriti and Purusha both together cannot aid each other in the production of the universe. A blind man may help a lame man and a lame man in his turn a blind man. Or to take another illustration, a piece of iron gets attracted towards a magnet, and a magnet in its turn towards a piece of iron. But such a relation of mutual aiding does not subsist between Prakriti and Purusha. If it is held that Prakriti works under the influence of Purusha. If it is held that Prakriti works acting under the influence of Purusha, then this statement is subject to a flaw of Aprayojakatva of Prakriti. Prakriti will cease to be a Prayojaka. Nor can it be supposed that this acting depends upon Prakriti, and consequently no force or impulse of creating or acting is derived by her from Purusha; because in that case, activity will continue forever and will never cease. This argument naturally presupposes the eternal relationship between Prakriti and Purusha. But the Samkhyas do not belive this. The relation between them is not eternal. The union of Prakriti with Purusha is a cause of bondage. This bondage can be cut off, only when Purusha remains aloof from Prakriti. So it is fallacious to draw conclusion which is antagonistic to the Samkhya theory, in order to establish causality of Prakriti acting under the influence of Purusha.
2. Angitvanupapateshcha (2-2-8). Another flaw is pointed out in the above reasoning. If causality be attributed to Prakriti and Purusha, then one of them must be considered chief and another subordinate. Suppose some on holds that Purusha is chief, then we must know that he indirectly lends support to or rather embrace Brahmvaad. This means frustration of his cherished theories. Nor can he declare that Prakriti is chief and Purusha is subordinate. Such an assumption conduces one to the state of want of emancipation.

The sutra does not permit to draw such an inference so that it will not leave any doubts for any of the flaws, pointed out above. Prakruti is destitute of the capability of knowledge. We are not, therefore, entitled to draw any inference of an opposite kind.
Thus, the Sutrakara rejects Samkhya theory whole-some, as not deserving any amount of consideration in the matter of causality, because on examination, the theory is found defective and incompatible with the spirit of the Shruti. Not only this, but there is a conflict even among the Samkhyas themselves. Some commonly known as “Nirishwar Samkhyas’ accepts 25 substances, enumerated above; while others of the same group known as “Seshvara’ add Ishwara and make the list of 26 substances.
Atomic Theory Nirakaran (Paramanuvaad):

Next, the theory of the causality of atoms supplies the Sutrakara with a theme for consideration. The credit of propounding this theory belongs to Kanad. It is not only peculiar to him but is the distinguishing feature of his philosophy. These atoms take the place of Tanmatras in Samkhya philosophy. It is however not unknown in the Nyaya philosophy, yet it is not fully worked out there as in the Vaisheshika works. In his analysis, he stops at one smallest point, beyond which he cannot carry on his analytical method. Without this admission, he is of opinion that a fault known as a regressus ad infinitum will result. “A mountain, he says, would not be larger then a mustard seed. These smallest and invisible particules are held by Kanad to be eternal in themselves, but non-eternal as aggregates. As Aggregates again they may be organized, the power of smelling is the earthly organ, stones are inorganic”. “As to atoms, they are supposed to form first an aggregate of two, then an aggregate of three double atoms, then of four triples atoms an so on. White single atoms are indestructible, composite atoms are by their very nature liable to decomposition, and in that sense to destruction. An atom, by itself invisible, is compared to the sixth part of a mote in a sun beam”

This atomic theory, says the Sutrakara, fails to interprete correctly the doctrine of causality. The refutation of this theory is based upon the following arguments:

1. No combination of atoms is possible. Two distinct atoms that unite with each other have no space in them. This want of space prevents their combination. So the theory of Dwaanuk, Taryanuk etc is ludircrous.
2. If atoms are eternal, there will be no dissolution of the universe.
3. We can not suppose that atoms possess form. If we believe that they possess form, then they would acquire ephemeral character.
4. This atomic theory is not accepted by all vaidikas.

Buddhist Theory Nirakaran:

Now we shall consider the Buddhist Theory:
According to Buddhas, the combination of two things namely Paramanu Samuh and Skandh Samuday is the cause of the bondage of Jeeva. Paramanu Samuh means Prithvivyadibhut Samuday and Skandh Samuday is the collection of five Skandhas:-

1. Rupa Skandh
2. Vigyan Skandh
3. Vedana Skandh
4. Sangya Skandh
5. Sanskar Skandh

The combination of all these is the cause of the bondage of Jeeva’s in metapsychosis. The separation of all these by the annihilation of each one of them means emancipation. This is the conception of emancipation according to the Buddhistic school. Badarayana refuses to accept this theory of the dual combination of Paramanu Samuh and Skandh Samudaya on the ground that it is accepted them all substances as well as Jivas according to Baudhas being ephemeral, it will not be possible for the Jivas to cut off the bondage of metempsychosis. The reasoning is this. In the first moment, according to this theory, JIvas and Samuday dways will be produced. In the second moment, they will get united with each other. In the third moment, their union results into metempyschosis of the Jivas. But this is opposed to the fundamental doctrine of the Bauddhas who declare the momentariness of all things. The sutra contains refutation of this theory. The disputant offers an explanation for this theory, by stating that, even though all things by nature are momentary, and their existence ceases in the next moment, yet the things existing in a prior condition are a cause to those that usher into existence in a prior condition are a cause to those that usher into existence in a subsequent condition. Thus the continuity is never broken. This being the case, there will be no end of the metempyshosis. But the Sutrakara is too bold to make allowance even such explanation. He therefore in 2-2-19, boldly declares against this attitude of his disputant. The Nimitatva of these is accepted so far as Uttaropatti of things are concerned. In the case of Samuday it does not permit any such admission; because want of stability of things prevents its after connection in a subsequent stage; and this makes the combination impossible. So the theory is not free from the flaw to which it is subjected above. The theory is not free from the flaw to which it is subjected above. The theory that the things that are produced causes production of subsequent things also does not hold good, because at the moment of its production, it is already destroyed. Moreover, if we accept that things are born, continue and get dissolved. Moreover, if we accept that things are born, continue and get dissolved simultaneously in one and the same moment, the contradiction involved becomes apparent. The attack of this point is an occasion in 2-2-20

The Bahyamat lays down two fundamental Pratigya’s in connection with this. The first one is called Kshanikatva Pratigya which is expressed in Sarva Kshanikam. If in 2-2-21 the Sutrakara says that if the connection of the thing is admitted in the next moment, with another thing, then the first Pratigya will be violated. If it is not admitted then, it leads to the violation of second. Thus the disputant is on the horns of a dilemma. He is placed in a very precarious position. So the assumption of his theory at once totters down.

Having thus rendered Baudha’s postion impotent as regards the production of things ‘in the succeeding moment, the Sutrakara goes on attacking their position with respect to destruction of things’. This gives an occasion for the sutra 2-2-22. This is principally directed against those Baudhists that style themselves as Vainashikas. They hold non-eternity of things. These kinds of destruction, upheld by the Baudhas are not possible;because the continuity of things is not destroyed. The continuity persists even in succeeding moments.

The first Nirodh is opposed to all reasons, because the things being momentaty,cannot have any connection with their Nashak “Destroyer”. The second one also similarly falls to the ground. Thus the theory of Nirodh “Destruction” cannot be supported.

But the Kshanikvadins believe that emancipation results from the extinction of nescience. The Sutrakara says that even this is not true. The Sutra 2-2-23 exposes the hollowness of their arguments. If the destruction of nescience, with all its attendants is admitted as not resulting from any motive then the utility of scriptural authority becomes questionable. If it be admitted to proceed from a deliberate motive, and a fair ground, it is not possible in view of the fact that in the system of the Baudhas, the object other than nescience as well as its effect is not accepted. Commenting upon what has been said about Akash by Baudhas, the Sutrakara in the next sutra states that what applies to Nirodh does mutatis mutandis also apply to Akash.
Vigyanvaad Nirakaran:

Vigyanvadi is also answered as follows in the Nabhavah Upalabhdhe Adhikaran

1. Naabhavah Upalabhdhehe: 2-2-28. The Vigyanvadi consideres Prapancha to be Vigyanmayah. According to him, objects have got no external existence. But this non-existence of the objects cannot be accepted. Objects have their external existence. No body can deny this.
2. 2-2-29. Even if one denies non-existence of Prapanch, its unreality cannot be gain said. If this attitude be taken by Vigyanvadi, the Sutrakara opposes it here. It is a wrong analogy to draw comparison between dreamy phenomena and external objects. Lapse of time does not exhibit any difference in the condition of external objects like a jar etc. Their knowledge will be the same even after a lapse of time. In the dreamy phenomena, our experience is not of the same character.
3. 2-2-30. As external objects have no existence, in the system of Vigyanvad, desires also have no existence. If however it is argued that desires are beginningless, the statement becomes liable to a fault of Andhaparadh. Without object, there can be no desires.
4. Kshanikatvacch 2-1-31. Desires can have no substratum, because AlayVigyan is momentary.

Thus both Sautantrika and Vigyanvadi are firmly overcome by the Sutrakara. Their theory of Asatkaryavad is totally rendered useless.

Syaadvaad Nirakaran:

The Syaadvaad is also refuted in four aphorisms. The followers of Syaadvaad are indifferent to external objects. They explain everything in accordance with what is called Saptabhaanginay. The seven BHangi’s (modes) are

1. Syaadatsi
2. Syaanashti
3. Syaadasti Cha Nasti Cha
4. Syaadvaktavya
5. SyaadastiChaavaktavyaha
6. Syaanaasti Chavaktavyascha
7. Syaadasti Cha Syaanaasti Chavaktavyaascha

1. 2-2-23: This Saptabhanginay does not merit admission, since Bhav and Abhav both expressed in the words of Asti and Nasti cannot be combined into one. The thing cannot be and not be at the same time. Either it is or it is not.
2. 2-2-34: If one says that owing to its indifference to external state of objects, the above fault does not occur, the Sutrakara warns us that even if the above explanation were granted, the statement will not be entirely free from the fault pointed out above. In that case also it will prove non-existence of everything.

According to Syaadvad, the size of soul is in proportion to the body. If the body is big, the soul is big, if it is small, the soul is small. This is hardly believable in view of that fact that, owing to unequality of all bodies, all the souls proportionately will be proportionately unequal.

1. 2-2-35: It should not be said that souls expand and contract like the limbs of the body. If it were so, then atma must be believed a vikaari substance.
2. 2-2-36: To avoid above faults, one should not hold permanency of Anutva or Mahatva. Because even thus does not establish Sharirparimanatva of body. This gives a final stroke to Syaadvad.

Mimansakas and Naiyayikas Nirakaran:

The conception of Ishwara figures prominently in the system of Patanjali, who added Ishwara as an extra entity to the list of 25 entities, accepted by the samkhyas. Kapil, however, does not advance any arguments to disprove the existence of God. What he says is this, that – and in this respect he does not differ much from Kant-there are no logical proofs to establish that existence, but neither does he offer any such proofs for denying it. This position is bettered by Patanjali in the Yoga Philosophy. The question of the existence of a Deity has arrested the attention of Gautam also; but only incidentally-“It comes in when a problem of the Buddhists is under discussion, namely, whether the world came out of nothing, and whether the manifestation of anything presupposes the destruction of its cause. This is illustrated by the fact that the seed has to perish before the flower can appear. But Gautam strongly denies this, and reminds the opponent that if the seed were really destroyed by being pounded or burnt, the flower would never appear. Nor could it be said that the flower, if it had not existed previously, destroyed the seed, while if it had, it would have owed its existence to the simple destruction of the seed. Therefore he continues, as nothing can be produced from nothing, nor from an annihilated something like a seed, the world also cannot have sprung from nothingness, but requires the admission of an Ishvara, the Lord, as its real cause. And this admission of an Ishvara, even though in the capacity of a governor rather then of a maker of the world is confirmed by what was evidently considered by a Gautama as a firmly established truth, namely that every act of man invariably produces its result, though not by itself, but under the superintendence of some one, that is of Ishvara. We then meet with a new argument, different from that of Mimansakas, namely that, if previous work (Karma) continued to produce effect of its own accord, independent of supreme Lord, then, how shall we account for the fact that some good or evil deeds of men at times remain barren without producing their fruits?

This doctrine of Ishvara is disapproved by the Sutrakara, who offers the following arguments.

1. 2-2-37. Ishvara cannot be acknowledged as a Niyamak different from Jeeva’s, because in that case the fault of “Unequality” and “cruelty” will be attributed to Ishvara. As this Ishvara has the expectancy of Karma’s, his independence becomes doubtful.
2. 2-2-33: Jeeva and Brahm being Vibhu, the connection of unborn God with Jiva is not possible.
3. 2-2-39: Ishvara cannot be imagined as a maker of the universe. Otherwise it will be inconsistent with the position assumed by the opponent.
4. If Kartrutva be attributed to Ishvara, then the senses will also belong to him; and this means He is subject to the experience of happiness and misery. This supposition reduces Ishvara to position analogues to that of a Jeeva.

These arguments prove the untenability of the Ishvaravad of Naiyayikas.
Mayavaad Nirakaran:

Shankaracharya explains the creation of the world by his theory of Maya. Absolute Brahman has nothing to do with creation. It is the work of Maya. On account of Maya, the creative activity is attributed to Brahman i.e. Universe is the outcome of Maya. This doctrine is subject to the under-mentioned flaws:-

1. If we support Maya to be the cause, then we shall have to support two principles existing simultaneously
1. Braham and
2. Maya.

This means dualism, which is opposed to the philosophy of Mayavada.

1. It is said by the upholder of the Maya doctrine that just as a man has errorneous cognition of a serpent in a rope lying on the ground, due to some optical defect; in the same way, it is due to Maya that one does see Brahman as the Universe. In fact, just as the serpent does not exist, so also the universe does not exist. Here it must be said that the analogy is false. In the illustration of a rope and a serpent, both the objects have forms, whereas in the example of Brahman and the Universe only the universe has a form. Now how can a Universe that has a form, be seen in Brahman that is formless? This is against common experience. Even the appearance must be of an object that has a form and not of one that has no form. Again in the case of illusion, this law operates, that the illusion is possible only if that object which has been previously seen. In the rope, the illusion of the serpent is possible, because the person who has that illusion has seen the serpent previously, but nobody has seen the universe, prior to its illusion in Brahman. The doctrine of Maya therefore is not tenable.

From all these theories, we learn that neither Prakriti not atoms nor Maya becomes the material cause of Universe. Vallabhacharyaji considers Brahman as the material cause. According to him the universe is not an illusion or something wrongly conceived in Brahman. It is one that was latent in Brahman that been brought out by Brahman for its pleasure. So the universe is not false. It is real as Brahman. Baudhas hold it real but their view is that existence comes into being from non-existence. The Naiyayikas and Vaishehshikas maintain that it is a non-entity arising from entity. The Mayavada holds that the whole series of effects are only as apparent changes in the cause. So the universe according to him is unreal. The Samkhya system has repudiated all these theories and established the theory of an effect being an entity arising from an entity.
But in that system the universe is supposed to emanate from non-entity. The following are the chief grounds on which the existence of an effect is proved in that system.

1. What is a non-entity can never be made an entity i.e. that which has never existed can never be brought into existence. If oil were not contained the oil-seed, we could not have produced oil.
2. Effect is always in one way or another, related to the cause. If the cause is real, its effect must be real.
3. Prior to its revelation, an effect is always latent in the cause. The jar could not be made if it were not latent in the clay. So if the universe were not in its cause, it could not have been manifested. There the universe is real.

Shree Vallabhacharyaji accepts the reality of the universe. As Brahman is real, its creation is also real. It cannot be other then real.

In Tadananyatvaadhikaran, he says that Sutrakara expresses his view on this knotty question on the strength of the passage of the Shruti viz.Shruti ‘Vacharambhanam Vikaaro Naamdheyam Mruttiketyeva Satyam” Cha (6-1-1). Some hold that the words ‘Vacharambhanam” and “Vikaaro” etc. prove that falsity or unreality of the effect. This interpretation, according to Sutrakara, is a far fetched one and unwarranted by the wordings of the Shruti. This point is clearly hinted in the sutra 2-1-14. The purport of the Shruti is to establish the oneness of or non-difference between the cause and the effect and not the unreality of the effect as alleged of Mayavadin. The stress is laid upon Ananyata between Karya and Karan and not upon Mithyatva of Karya. The Bhasyakara commenting upon this sutra, makes the following observations upon the Mayavadins for holding the theory of the unreality of cosmos. It will be realized from these comments that the theory of Mithyatva is here strongly denounced by the Bhasyakara. Not only its hollowness is exposed in all its nakedness but his challenge is thrown point blank back on him. In the example of clay, referred to in the above Shruti, it is said that various names by which different objects created out of clay are known are due to speech. Names and forms are called Vikaras (modifications). In the case of a Jar, the thing that is clay is true at all times; but the fact that it has received the appellation of a jar is due to speech. In the same way, the differences or modifications such as Jagat, Jiva etc that appear to our eyes are due to speech. They do not exist in the thing with which they are associated. In fact Jagat and Jiva are the parts of Brahman. For the sake of wordly transaction they are given distinct names as Jagat and Jiva. This does not make any fundamental difference in their essential form. The difference that appears between them and Brahman is simply nominal. Nobody can say against this, that even when one gives the name of a jar to a certain lump of clay, he is conscious of the conviction of its unreality; because the cognition of a jar is possible only in its existence and not in its non-existence. Even at a time when one has this cognition, the jar is there, nobody can deny its existence. The cognition arises from existence. Hence, it is beyond all shades of doubt that Vacharambhan Shruti propounds oneness with Karan (Brahman). Also, the Shruti (Chandogya 6-2-0) shows the reality of cosmos. Next the two sutras 2-1-15 further support to this.

Asadvyapadeshadhikaran further removes the misunderstanding arising from the word Asat in Asadwa Idamangna Aasita. The word Asat must not be construed so as to derive from it the sense of Asatva of Karya. The real sense that can be attached to it is that of Avyakrutatva. The shruti does not mean “It was non-existent before’ but “It was unmanifest”. This sense is derived by connecting it with the remaining part of the sentence. This sentence unequivocably declares that Brahman has manifested itself its own form in the universe. This is stated in 2-1-17. The point is made more explicit by citing an analogous case of Pat. So long Pat is folded, we can not possess definite knowledge about it; i.e. how long and broad it is. But if it be spread broadly we can know these details. In the same way, so long universe is latent in Brahman, we do not become conscious of its existence, but when it is revealed, we know it exactly what it is. So here the existence of the universe is regulated by certain miraculous powers of Brahman namely, powers of revelation and non-revelation. The universe before its existence was latent in Brahman; but when Brahman wills to evolve it out for its sport, it through the instrumentality of its power known as ‘revelation’ this. Therefore, does not prove that it is not real. The word Asat is used in the sense of Avvyakrut, unrevealed, it refers to the condition prior to the revelation of Jagat from Brahman. It has nothing to do with the cognition of falsity of Jagat.

If it is argued, that Brahman alone can not be a cause of the universe; because there is an expectancy of other auxillary causes; as in the case of a jar, a potter stands in need of such auxillary causes, as a wheel, a stick etc. Against this, the Sutrakara cites an analogous case of milk. He says that just as milk, while getting itself converted into the form of “Curds” does so if its own accord, without an expectancy of any other means, in the same way, Brahman also while itself getting transformed into the form of jagat, does not stand in need of any other help. In DevadiDevapi Loke 2-2-25 he expounds the same truth. In the world, we see that the gods and the yogis perform wonders by means of their own powers, without being helped by others. If this is the case with Gods and Yogis, then what wonder is there if an extraordinarily wonderful power of creating everything out of itself, unaided by others should be possessed by Brahman?

Brahman is endowed with all the powers. Nothing is wanting in Brahm. The Shruti Chandogya 3-14-2 declares Brahm to be everything. The sutra 2-1-30 is expressly clear on the Sardharmatva of Brahm. Not should it be said that as Brahman is destitute of senses, no Kartrutva must belong to it; because this point is already solved in 2-1-27. The Sutrakara bases all his evidence upon the authority furnished from Shrutis. He refuses to believe in evidence other then that of Shruti. The Shruti’s declare repeatedly that Brahm is Kartru. On the strength of the scriptural evidence we must admit the reality of the world.

On the strength of the authority of the Vedic passages and the Brahma Sutras, Vallabhacharya believes the world to be the Karya of God. This is summarized in v 27 in the line Prapancho Bhagavatkaryastadrupo Maayayabhavat. The world is the creation of Brahman. So Brahman is an efficient cause. This is explained clearly in his gloss Ayam Prapancho Na Prakrutah..
Not only that it is the work of Brahman, but it partakes of the nature of Brahman. This is so; because Brahman has manifested itself in the form of the world. In other words the world is the visible form of Invisible Brahman. It is a material cause also. To suggest this, the word Tadrup is used in the verse. If the nature of the world (i.e. effect) is not the same as that of Brahman (i.e. cause) then the existent might emanate from the non-existent. The question here arises, granted that the world is the work of Brahman how can such a world i.e. a finite and limited be created from one who is Beginningless and infinite. The answer is furnished by the word Mayaya in the verse. It is through the instrumentality of Maya, that this world has been brought out by Brahman. But what is this Maya? Is it jugglery? If it is so, then, the world being the creation of Maya, will be unreal. Shankaracharya understands the word Maya in the sense of jugglery, but Shree Vallabhacharya says that it is wrong to characterize Maya as jugglery. Maya is nothing but one of the powers of Brahman and it is subject to the will of Brahman. Whenever Brahman wills to create the world out of itself for its sport, It manifests the world by means of Maya i.e. Power. So, whenever out author uses the word Maya, it should be understood in the sense of power of Brahman, which is capable of assuming any form according to Brahman’s volition. The purpose of Brahman’s creation is for sport (pleasure).
In the second place, in the second line of the same verse, our author differentiates jagat ‘world’ from Samsar ‘metempsychosis’. These two are often identified with each other by some thinkers but it is wrong. There is a difference between Jagat and Samsar. The Samsar is the work of the human soul owing its existence to nescience. Due to nescience the soul forgets her real nature and also relation with Brahman, and consequently imagines herself as the door. Whenever a man does anything, he feels in his mind that it is done by him independently of any one. Thus he attaches much importance to himself, forgetting the Divine power who is above him. Whenever he gets or acquires, anything he thinks it is due to his efforts and skill. This is because he is under influence of nescience. This nescience is also Brahman’s power. In fact, Brahman is the doer of everything, but as stated above, the man is so overpowered by nescience, that he wants to take credit upon himself for everything which is done by him, which in fact is due to the divine will. So Prapanch is due to Maya and Samsar is to nescience. Our author elucidates the difference between the two below:
We learn that, it is Samsar which is unreal and not jagat. Jagat as said above is the work of Brahman, who creates it for its pleasure. Without diversity, pleasure is not possible. So the various objects and souls are created. Again the souls are subjected to the influence of nescience, so that they experience the condition of metempsychosis. When they realize their real form and relation of Brahman, by means of knowledge, nescience is removed and metempsychosis is destroyed. Thus samsar has Uttpatti origination and Lay destruction; whereas jagat has only Avirbhav manifestation and Tirobhav disappearance. Samsar has its end, but jagat has no end .The withdrawing of Jagat in Brahman is called an end but really speaking it is no one way of Brahman to indulge in sport. Just as it creates the world for its sport, so also it withdraws it into Itself for its sport. The first is the external sport i.e. sport into its visible form, ‘world’. The second is internal form i.e. in its invisible form. Our author thus attempts to give us an idea of Brahman, by a method known as “Karya Lakshana’. But the karya lakshana does not enable a man to have any clear idea about the real nature of Brahman. Because it is only an indirect way of describing it so he makes an attempt to describe Brahm by Swaroop Lakshana also Verse 25-26, describes Brahman’s original form. There is it said Brahman is all-pervading like the sky. It is enveloped by its maya. It is Saakar because it has limbs such as hands, feet, eyes and mouths in all directions. It stands pervading everything. It has infinite forms. Though it assumes infinite forms, itself is indivisible. Brahman is possessed of three qualities Sat, Chit and anand. From the Sat part emerges the world, from chit the human souls and from anand, the antaryamin. In the world, Chit and anand are not revealed and in the human souls, anand is not revealed. In the Antaryamin form, although anand is revealed, it is only in a limited measure. In fact, the Brahman reveals Itself under the forms viz world, human souls and the inner souls.

In verses 31 to 33, the effects of two powers viz knowledge and nescience are mentioned. In the first place it should be clearly understood that they are the powers of God created by his own power only. Under the influence of nescience the souls suffer humiliation, misery and state of bondage. Under the influence of the knowledge power, they get freedom from all kinds of wordly ills and realize the oneness of God. In the state of devotion, neither knowledge nor nescience can exercise their influence upon the souls. Then they become functionless. In that condition, they experience the bliss of Brahmanand which is higher then freedom.
Nescience (Avidhya):

Nescience has five constituents, each one of which is called Adhyas. They are Dehadhyas, Indriyadhyas, Pranadhyas, Antahkaranadhyas, and Swaroop Vismruti. Adhyas means super-imposition. When one thing is imposed on another, it is called super-imposition. Nescience creates such illusion on the soul, that the soulm who in fact is a part and parcel of Brahman, forgets her own real form and identifies herself with the body, the senses breath, and the inner organ and forgets away her entire nature. Under the influence of Dehadhyas, the soul thinks that she is body. That is one kind of ignorance. Due to this, the man will say, ‘I am fat or I am thin’. Really speaking fatness or thinness pertains to the body but the soul thinks that it belongs to her. Similarly when one says ‘I am blind or I am deaf’ the quality of blindness or deafness that pertains to senses is attributed to the soul. The ultimate result of nescience is to make the soul completely forget him. These Adhyasas are the chains forged by nescience to keep the soul imprisoned in the wordly state. So long these chains are not broken; freedom cannot be secured by the soul. The chains are to be broken by knowledge. Knowledge will not destroy the nescience and show the path of freedom but it will also break the shell of the adhyasas.

Knowledge also has five constituents, namely renunciation, knowledge, discipline, penance and devotion. Renunciation means aversion to worldly pleasures. Knowledge is explained as “Nitya-anitya Vastu Vivek Purvakam Parityag” i.e. abandonment of things, accompanied by discrimination of the permanent from the non-permanent. Discipline is Ekante-ashtang yog and Tapah is ‘VicharPurvakamalochana” i.e. meditating upon God or it is Ekagrasthiti i.e. the state of concentration. Devotion is love. Each one of these masks a stage in the advance on the path of progress. In the first stage of knowledge, the man learns futility of the worldly pleasures, and so grows averse to them. Then he does know what is worth having and what is not worth having. Only those things which are of permanent value are worth having to him. He will therefore set his mind upon such things only i.e. he will prefer spiritual life to the life of the worldly pleasures. This way he endeavours to control the minds. When the mind is perfectly controlled, he will concentrate his mind upon the Lord. After that in the last stage he loves God. The stage of love is the last phase of knowledge. Then the knowledge is complete. Such knowledge will remove nescience and make the soul free from metempyschosis.

It is said that as the world has emanated from Brahman so the souls have emanated from Brahman. The human soul is infinitesimally small. Like perfume it pervades the whole body. Ordinarily it is atomic but when it acquires likeliness of Brahman, it becomes all pervading. The main characteristics of the soul are discussed fully in the Brahma sutras. We give below what Vallabhcharayaji says there about the nature and size of the soul and its relation to Brahman.

The objector again challenges the argument of Jiva’s Anutva on the ground of Tatvamasi. In this, the identity between human soul and Brahman is established by resorting to what is called Bhagtyaaglakshana. The objector’s point is that, if the identity of Jiva with Brahm becomes obvious from this, how can Jiva be regarded atomic? This objection is removed by the Sutrakara in 2-3-29. The identity expressed in Tatvamasi relates to their Guna’s. The prominent quality of Brahm is Anand. The Jiva has this quality latent in it. When this particular quality becomes manifest in Jiva, it acquires the position in which it resembles Brahman. This is what is meant by Tatvamasi. It is the quintessence of their Guna’s that is mentioned here. The sutra 2-3-30 says the same thing. It is true that Jiva itself has got no anand in the state of worldly existence. But this does not mean that it is bereft of it altogether. The quality of anand is therem but it is not manifest. As Pumsatva of a man, which is latent in his childhood becomes patent in its advanced condition when it once more becomes part and parcel of Brahman. This point is expressed in 2-3-31. If, however, it is argued that even in the condition of mundane existence, Jiva has got this anand, there; we must admit that this anand does always exist. In that case, nobody can deny its existence. The admission of such an argument will conduce us to draw further conclusion that, if it is so, then there will be no metempsychosis at all. In the absence of metempsychosis, there will be no stage of emancipation. So it must be admitted that jiva does not possess anand. It is the chief attribute of Brahm. In other words jiva is Brahm minus Anand.

Next the question of Jiva’s kartrutva is considered. We have seen above that according to Samkhyas, activity belongs only to Prakriti; but this theory of the Samkhyas is refuted by the Sutrakara in the first pada of 2nd chapter. Here he declares that the quality of activity is to be associated with Jiva.
Relation between Jiva and Brahman:

Jiva is a portion of Brahm. It should not be doubted that as Brahm is Niravaya, Jiva cannot be its part. Brahman’s form is not like worldly forms. The Shrutis do not assert that Brahm is formless. On the contrary they say that Brahm has a form which differs from those of ordinary beings, whose forms are composed of bones, blood, skin etc. Brahm’s form consists of Anand. And as Anand, it is sakar. This is the meaning of Nirakar and Sakar Shruti’s. So no contradiction appears in saying that Jiva is a part of Brahm. This may again be disputed on the supposition that, if it be so believed in, then there will be no difference between Jiva and Brahman. This is also answered by the fact that, even though Jiva is a part of Brahm, in Jiva state of metempsychosis, he differs from Brahman because Jiva in its latter condition, after its separation from Brahman, does not possess Anand, as patent as in the case of Brahm. This Amsatva of Jiva is emphasized by the Sutrakara in 2-3-43.
Another objection to the Amsatva of Jiva of that, if Jiva is a Part of Brahman, then, the misery and unhappiness of Jiva will make Brahm also miserable and unhappy. It is the common experience of all persons that if a part is affected, then, the whole of which it forms a part is also affected. If a foot receives injury, will not the body suffer? The sutrakara allows the legality of this objection, but to strengthen his position, he cites a case of Prakash light. We know that heart of a lamp causes burning sensation in others but itself is immune from this effect. In the same way, Brahm is free from the experience of misery and unhappiness. Just as any Dosh in Prakash does not affect it, in the same way the Dosh of Jiva, which is a portion of Brahm does not affect Brahm. This point is cleared in B.S. 2-3-25.
The upholders of the Maya doctrine regard the soul as phenomenal appearance or reflection of Brahman. But that is not Vallabhacharyaji’s view. According to him, it is a part of Brahman. In the Avaran Bhang commentary, 6 views among the holders of the reflection theory are indicated and refuted. These six views may be indicated briefly as under:-
1. Prakriti has two aspects: – Maya and Avidya. The reflection of Chaitanya in Maya is called Ishwar and that in Avidya nescience is called Jiva.
2. Prakriti is Trigunatmika. Its form Maya is Satva Pradhan and Avidya is Rajstham Pradhan. The reflection of Chaitanya in Maya is Ishwar and that in Avidya is called Jiva.
3. Prakriti is possessed of 2 powers- one is called Vikshep Shakti: The power of projecting and the other Avran Shakti: the power of obscuring. The first is called Maya and the reflection of Brahm into it is called Ishwar. The second is called Avidya and the reflection of Chaitanya into it is called Jiva.
4. The reflection of Chaitanya in Avidya is called Ishwar and that in Antahkaran is called Jiva.
5. The reflection of Chaitanya of Maya is Ishwar and that in Antahkaran is Jiva.
6. The reflection of Chaitanya in Avidya is Jiva.

All these theories have been refuted by Purushottamji. Shri Vallabhcharya repudiates all these theories by only one sentence “MayaJavNikacchaanna Naananya Pratimbimbate”. A veiled object cannot have reflection. Brahman, according to the assumption of the Mayavadin is veiled by Maya. So he cannot have reflection. Moreover, the object which is to be reflected requires some space in which it should be reflected although the place where the object is located, cannot give reflection. Brahm is everywhere. There is no place without Brahm. When there is no empty space without Brahm, there can be no reflection of Brahm. If against this, it is said that the sky stands above us pervading all things and yet it is reflected in waters. The sky is not located in one place. To this, the author replies, the reflection of the sky is possible, because waters are not in the sky. Really speaking even here it is not the reflection of the sky, which has got a definite Rup. Brahman, according to Mayavada is formless. And it is the law of reflection that only an object which has shape or form should be reflected.

So Brahman cannot throw reflection into Maya. Again, according to the Shruti passage Dwasuparna, Brahman and Jeeva are like two brids perched upon on bough, i.e. they have one place. No object can cast its reflection in the very place in which it is located. So jiva cannot be Brahman’s reflection. Again reflection is perceptible to the eyes, but Brahman, whose reflection is supposed to be Jiva, is not perceptible to the eyes but Brahman, whose reflection is supposed to be Jiva, is not perceptible to the eyes. It is adrushya and not Chakshurgrahya. Moreover, reflection can only reveal the form of the object and not its action.

Having rendered the reflection theory null and void, our author proves that Brahm is the material cause of the world and the souls.

So on such grounds the reflection theory is discarded by our author. The world and the souls have emanated from Brahman. Therefore Brahman is the cause and the world and the souls are its effects. To say that Brahman is a material cause does not give us adequate idea bout the very form of Brahman. So our author gives Swaroop lakshana of Brahman in verses 65, 66 and 67. There, it is said that Brahm’s form consists of existence, consciousness and bliss. Brahm is omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, changeless, and destitute of merits, devoid of any kind of Distinctions etc.

Branches, leaves, flowers and fruits are the various distinctions appearing in a tree. They are SwagatBheda. Although they exist in one and the same tree, still, the branches are different from leaves etc. but such distinctions do not exist in Brahman. Similarly there are no distinctions of the class (Sajatiyabheda). One tree is different from another tree, although belonging to the same species. But in Brahman, there are no such distinctions, because Brahman is one in all the souls. It is also devoid of the Vijaatiyabhed. A mango tree is a tree and a nimb tree is also a tree, but both these trees do not belong to the same class. The material objects i.e. Jad padarthas are different from souls (Chit). But both these are the forms of Brahman. In fact no differences exist in Brahman. So Brahman is SajatiyaVijaatiyaSwagatadwaitaVarjit. Further, it is said that it is a substratum of all, and different from all worldly objects. It is the master of Prakriti and Spirit etc.

Brahman according to Vallabhacharya is not Nirguna and Nirakar. Shankarcharya considers Nirgun Brahmn as the higher entity and Saguna Brahm as lower entity. Thus he differentiates between two kinds of Brahman. Saguna Brahm in his system is meant for worship only till the state of knowledge is reached. After the state of knowledge Saguna Brahm is no longer needed. Vallabhacharya has only one conception of Brahm. His Brahm is both Nirguna and Saguna. It is niguna because of devoid of wordly qualities and it is saguna because it is possessed of divine qualities. Similarly Brahm is Nirakar and Sakar. Its form is made of Bliss. It has the limbs like hands, feet etc. but they are all bliss. This apparent contradiction between two kinds of Brahman is removed by Vallabhacharya in his commentary called Anubhasya on Brahma Sutras. Here we shall give its gist.
“The fourth adhikaran considers the form of Brahman. Primafacia, an attempt is made to reconcile the conflicting statements on the subject of the form of Brahman and pronounce uncontroversial judgement upon them, revealing the true nature of Brahman. As Brahman is the cause of everything, two fold nature of Brahman is not possible. Everywhere only one Brahman is described. Nor should it be said that Prapanch Rahit Brahm and Prapanch Sahit Brahm are two distinct ones. Kath. 4-1-1 lays down the prohibition of difference. The followers of certain shakhas are however of opinion that these conflicting statements point out that outwardly we perceive difference but really speaking such a difference does not exist.

Illustration of “Sun’s light” serves very good analogy for a right explanation of the nature of Brahman. Just as Sun’s light is both the object of cognition and of non-conginition, so is Brahman. Brahman reveals its nature unto us by means of Its grace and not otherwise. Should any one argue on the strength of Shruti (Gha. 4-5-13) that according to this, Brahman’s form is “PragyaGhana” i.e. “Embued with knowledge” and therefore the attributes of Jada and Jiva are not found in Brahman; and consequently the statement regarding Brahman’s being possessed of the attributes of Prapanch is subsidiary only. This argument is answered in the next adhikarana. The attributes such as “Sarvakamatva” etc are not due to “UPadhi”. Brahman being a substratum of all contrary qualities, It does not need anything. The question then here arises, how to explain the contrast between “NishPrapanch” or “Nirvishesh Shruti’s” and “Saprapanch” or “Savishesh Shrutis”? The Sutrakara attempts the solution of this puzzle in 3-2-22. Here he says that the object of the Nirvishesh Shruti’s is the negation of worldly qualities. The object of the Nirvishesh Shruti’s is not to convey to us the entire negation of any form or qualities in the case of Brahman. Their implication is that Brahman has no worldly form or qualities. This does not mean Brahman has no form. It has got a form; but it is divine and transcendental. The Shruti passages have to be understood in this sense only.

In the next adhikarana the same point is further stressed. As Brahman is capable of being seen, one cannot hold that it is Nirakar. Shruti and Smruti passages declare that Brahman’s form is seen by its votaries “Yamevaish Vrunute Tem Labhyaha” (Mundak. 3-2-3). Bhagwad Geeta (11-14), Bhagwad Geeta (11-54). In all these passages, it is said that if Brahman is pleased with the votary, It reveals its form to him. This goes to prove that Brahm possesses form. The Sutra (3-2-2) sums the controversy, the two kinds of Brahman, by an apt illustration of a serpent. It informs us that because two kinds of Shruti’s, of opposite character are met with, in the Vedic text; we should not suppose that there is an express exhortation made about two Brahmans. Inspite of this, they favour the doctrine of Brahman being one. The confusion of sense arising here can be removed by understanding the example of a serpent. A serpent is ordinarily straight, yet at times, it assumes circular form by twisting itself into many coils. It assumes various positions-straight, crooked or circular. This does not prove that, there are many serpents. Similarly Brahm may assume many forms and changes, yet from that we are not justified to draw deduction that there are many Brahmanas. The descriptions of both Nirvishesh and Savishesh Brahma’s apply to one Brahm. Brahm who is both Nirakar and Sakar is one and the same. Not only this, but even the attributes of Brahm are also Brahm.They are not separate from it. The 10th adhikarana, on the strength of these reasons propounds that Brahman is the highest entity. The Shruti expressly denies the existence of any other object, higher than or equal of Brahman.
Work, Knowledge and Devotion:

Let us now turn to the question of means in the system of Shree Vallabhacharyaji. In all, there are three principal means – work, knowledge and devotion. An exhaustive treatment of these and their relative importance will be given in the second chapter of this work. Here we shall make a passing reference to them and try to understand how Shree Vallabhacharya views each one of them. Shree Vallabhacharya belongs to the devotional school; so, naturally, he will assert that devotion if the supreme means for the attainment of Summum Bonum. We have already discussed this point in the beginning of our treatise. The same question has been discussed in the Brahma Sutras by Badarayan Vyas. Let us hear the arguments used by Badarayan. He starts the whole discussion there, after first laying down that work is identical with Brahman.

Just as knowledge is Brahman, so is work Brahman. This is confirmed by “Tatha Hi Purushartho Bhagwanen”. Jaimini denies this position. He is of opinion that Karma alone leads to the realization of fruit and not Gyan. So as a means Karma is better than Gyan. To Jaimini God is nothing but Karma. He states his theory of Karma as under:

1. Achar Darshanam (2-4-3) .Even the knowers of Brahman, such as Vasistha etc have been heard practicing sacrificial ceremonies such as Agnihotra etc. This establishes the fact that Gyan is impotent to sublate the force of Karma.
2. The Shruti “Janako Ha Vaideho BahuDakshinen Yagyeneje” mentions an example of Janak, who performed sacrifices, although he was far advanced in knowledge and had no need of work. This means that even a Gyani must do karma.
3. Samanvayrambhanat 3-4-5: The combination of Gyan and Karma has been enjoined in Shruti passages such as “Tam Vidhyakarmani Samanvaarmete”. From this, it is clear that both Gyna and karma have to be resorted to.
4. “Tadvato Vidhanaat” 3-4-6: In has been laid down that knowledge of Brahman entitles one to perform karma.
5. “Niyamansch”: A strict rule is prescribed in scriptures namely that Agnihotra must be performed as long as there is life. If one fails to abide by this, he incurs sin, which can be purged off by performing only contrition ceremonies which are mentioned in the Smriti works.

The following points are advanced by Badarayan to controvert Jaimini’s theory of Karma.

1. In “Adhikopadeshaattu Badarayanesyaivam Taddarshanaat 13-4-8: he says that Brahman is superior to Karma. This is declared even by a shruti passage (Bruh. 4-4-22). Vallabhacharya asserts that Brahman is not karma or Gyan or both, but he transcends both these conceptions. To identify Brahm with Karma or Gyan or both these is to circumscribe the power of Brahman to only one or two powers out of infinite powers. This is also the attitude of Badarayana and it is indicated in this sutra. As bhakti is connected with Brahman directly, it is the most reliable means for the attainment of Brahman. In the presence of Bhakti, Gyan and Karma prove in-effectual.
2. The Sutra “Tulyam Darshanam” 3-4-9 points out equality of Achar (practice) i.e. among Gyani’s both kinds are seen
1. Those who have resorted to Karma and
2. Those who have renounced karma.

This frustrates the theory of Jaimini who holds that knowledge is subsidiary to Karma. Next Sutra 3-4-10 lends further support to it. The Shruti does not authoritatively assert that all knowers of Brahman must practice abandonment of Karma. On the contrary we have innumerable passages scattered about here and there in the Vedic Literature, that strengthen our impression about the abandonment of Karma.Compare this especially with 4-5-15. Here one may be inclined to raise a question, namely, why Janak did perform Karma and Shukra did not? Its answer is furnished in “Vibhagaha Shatvat”. Performance of Karmas depends upon one’s adhikara. One Gyani needs karma and another does not need it. Adhikara alone decides it. A further question here may arise namely how is the question of adhikara to be ascertained? The sutra “Adhyayanmaatravatah” 3-4-12 furnishes an apposite answer to this. Only those that betake to the study of Vedas are privileged for the performance of Karma. But one who is a knower of Brahman does not need it.

3. “Naavisheshat 3-4-13. Refutes karmavadins argument that shruti have laid that positive injunction about the performance of karma. In the passage, “Na Karmana Na Prajayaa Na Dhanen Tyaagenaike Amrutatvaamaanashu”, we are told that for moksha, karma is not needed. It specifically shows the importance of Karma Tyaag.
4. “Urdhwaretah: Su Cha Shabde hi” 3-4-17: This shows that recluses have not to perform Karma, Vairagya is a pre-requisite condition for embracing a life of renunciation.

Having thus rendered karma theory, weak and impotent, the Sutrakara proceeds to effect a compromise. He says that as according to Yoga, a particular mental state is needed for the thoroughness in meditation, in the same way at times, performance of karma is deemed requisite for Bhakti. So the Gospel of Karma, which is a drift of Purvakanda is not useless. It has also some end to achieve. Viewing from this point of view, we cannot question its utility.

The second adhikaran carries on the same discussion further in 6 Sutras. It shows positively the relation between Karma and Gyan. In the Sutra 3-4-25, it is said that for gathering the knowledge of Purushottam, there is a strong need of all i.e. Karma, Gyan and Bhakti. This is illustrated by an example of Ashwa a horse. The horse is not employed in one kind of service. He is employed in various kinds of services. Similarly karma also is not restricted to one specific use. It does avoid hindrances in the path of knowledge, and also obliterates the impurities of the heart. This is the use of the karma. As a means of knowledge it is useful but, after that, it is useless. It cannot help the man to secure the fruit of knowledge. In the next Sutra, he says that the “Shamdamadi” are to be regarded as constituents of Gyan. In Bhakti Marga, however, they are not to be much cared for.

Summarising his position, Shree Vallabhacharya says that no doubt Knowledge is better then work, at the same time one must know that devotion is better than knowledge. But if knowledge is united with devotion it is still far better. Mere knowledge is useless. Therefore, Shree Vallabhacharya says that if a man of knowledge is devoted to Shree Krishna, then none is better than he. Shankaracharya says that mere knowledge of “Tatvamasi” is sufficient to remove nescience and guarantee emancipation. Shree Vallabhacharya does not agree with him. Knowledge of “Tatvamasi” is mere verbal knowledge. That cannot guarantee emancipation. It cannot generate real knowledge which is needed to cut off the bonds of nescience. Shankaracharya detaches the words “Tatvamasi” from the whole sentence in which they occur and regards it as a great sentence (Mahavakya). Our author says that to take only “Tatvamasi” as a Mahavakya is mutilation of the Upananishadic text. The words “Tatvamasi” by themselves do not constitute Mahavakya. They occur in the section of the Shvetketu episode in the Chhandogya Upanishad.

Just before this portion a statement is made that there is only one kind of knowledge worth seeking, by which all knowledge is sought. If that knowledge is got then no other knowledge remains to be known. That knowledge is the knowledge of Brahman. Just as by knowing gold, the knowledge of ornaments which are made out of it is also got, so by knowing Brahman all created things are known. Thus stating his position at the outstart, the point of the destituteness of the equality of Brahman is emphasized by several illustrations and finally it is summarized in the following sentence “Etedatmyamidam Sarva TatSatyaam Sa Atma Tatmasi Schetketo”. So this whole sentence should be taken as “Mahavakya” and not only its part “Tatvamasi”. First by Etat, the world is said to be Brahman, and to emphasise that it is not unreal, the words “Tatsatyam” are used. Again to say that it is not non-different from Brahman, the words “Sa Atma” are used. Then, it is said that soul is Brahman, for this, the words “Tatvamasi” are inserted. So merely “Tatvamasi” is not a “Mahavakya”. The whole sentence cited above should be taken as “Mahavakya”. Moreover “Tatvamasi” does not imply the identity of the human soul with Brahman but the non-difference of the souls from Brahman. The sentence “Tatvamasi” conveys only verbal knowledge, which alone cannot lead to emancipation. So it is of no use as a means. In the world, the knowledge of words may help one to remove the ignorance but Brahman is not like a wordly object. It is transcendental. It cannot be, therefore, comprehended by the above method. This is expressed by our author in these worlds:- (“Laukikam Hi LokYuktyaavgamyate, Brahm Tu Vaidikam, VedPratipaatiditarthBodho Na ShabdSadharanaVidhyaya Bhavati KintvanyaySadhanamastitsyah”). “Anyasadhan” are, the author says, “Tap”, “Ved Yukti” and “Bhagwad Prasad” i.e. God’s grace, penance and understanding the Vedas in their real light. These are auxilliares to it. Mere “tap” and “Ved Yukti” are powerless to produce the fruit without Bhagwad Prasad. The real knowledge is very difficult to get. Even in the Satya Yuga it was after undergoing a great deal of sufferings that a man used to get it. In this Kali Yuga, even that is not possible. And what is the test of knowledge? It is in attainment of the state of “Sarvagyata” and “AlaukikTejasvita”. A man who has got knowledge becomes omniscient. He knows everything and gets divine halo of light, but even the man who has acquired knowledge fails to attain “Brahmbhav” and “Sayujya”. Knowledge and nescience are like two states of waking and sleeping, which being of opposite character annihilates each other. Knowledge annihilates nescience. But when nescience is more powerful then it will knowledge. Inspite of knowledge, nescience may operate its effect and hurl a man down in the bottomless abyss of sin and thereby cause his degradation. So knowledge is not a trustworthy means. Therefore to save him from such a condition devotion is necessary. If knowledge is supported by devotion, then, not only that it can resist the force of nescience but it can annihilate it for ever; so that emancipation will be within immediate reach. On these grounds, our author rejects Mayavadins, theory of knowledge. Not does the Samkhya theory of knowledge appeal to him, because, according to that system, Prakriti is regarded as the cause of Universe. As that system does not accept Brahman it is defective. Instead of 25 Principles of that system, Shree Vallabhacharya accepts 28 as mentioned in Puranas. However the Samkhya is not completely discarded by him. The Samkhya Marga mentioned in the Puranas finds his favour because ultimately it becomes a means of devotion. Yoga preaches restraint over senses as a means, but if it is going to be an independent means without any association with devotion, it is useless. It should be used for meditation of God. Even, if it is used for Atma Bodh, then also it has some value. In Gyanmarg various remedies for the Laya of Prapanch are suggested; but they are only purifactory of mind. They cannot annihilate Prapanch. But it can be annihilated by Service of the Lord. By the service of the Lord, the senses will cease to function as the organs of the body. Their physical character will be transformed, and they will become so spiritualized that they will no longer run after worldly objects. When their character is so formed, they will not function for the pursuit of worldly pleasures. Either they will show aversion to them or be indifferent to them and thus the Prapanch will be annihilated since Prapanch is Niranand, Jeeva is Guptanand and Krishna is Purnanand. Another way to annihilate Prapanch is to feel the presence of some presiding diety in each one of the senses, so that man who has got this feeling will never be inclined to do any wrong deeds or think evil thoughts. Each sense has a certain presiding deity. For example, the deity of speech is god fire. When a man becomes conscious of the presence of god of fire in speech he understands the real function of that sense i.e. the sense will not be used for any worldly purposes. It will understand its real function. Each sense will function for a divine purpose. The third remedy is “AdhyatmaDradhGyan”. This means that the firm knowledge of the non-difference of the soul from Brahm also helps one to cut off the bonds of the world.

These remedies of annihilation of Prapanch are, in fact, meant for the training of the mind, so that the man who has tried them acquires fitness for renunciation of the world, but they cannot enable the man to completely annihilate the Prapanch. Complete annihilation is possible only through the instrumentality of devotion. So the principle, enunciated by Shree Vallabhacharya is that devotion alone is the proper means for the annihilation of Prapanch. Devotion again is of two kinds:

1. Sadhan Rupa Bhakti
2. Fal Rupa Bhakti.

Shree Vallabhacharya says that there are three classes of the devotees. The first class, second class and third class. The first class devotees are those whose devotion is coupled with knowledge and radiated by love. If his act of devotion is coupled with knowledge, but not radiated by love, then he is of the second class. If it’s a mere devotion without knowledge, he is of the third class. Mere devotion no doubt destroys sins and generates Dharma. But that is not Bhakti. Devotion therefore needs Knowledge and love. The knowledge is acquired by “tap” and “Vairagya” and love for God. The point of Shree Vallabhacharya on this question will be clear from his Prakash Commentary on V. 95. which is quoted here:

“VairagyaGyanYogeshcha Premna Cha Tapasa Tatha|
Ekenaapi Dradenesham Bhajansiddhimavapnuyaat||”

From this it is obvious that, according to Shree Vallabhacharyaji “Vairagya, Gyan, Yoga, Prem, and Tap” are the Angas of devotion. It must be noted here that love which is mentioned here as the Anga of Bhakti is SadhanRupa. It is not Falrupa. The Falrupa Bhakti is pure love. Is it independent of the above angas. There angas are meant for the development of the devotion. When it is fully developed, it will no longer need them. It itself then becomes fruit. In fact, in the system of Shree Vallabhcharya, there are two kinds of Devotion- one whose fruit is Sayujya or Brahmabhav and the other whose fruit is Bhajananand. The first one is ordinarily termed as Bhakti, the second one is termed as “Pushti Bhakti”.


Brahmasutranubhashyam by Mahaprabhu Shree Vallabhacharyaji
Tatvarthadeepanibandh by Mahaprabhu Shree Vallabhacharyaji Published by J.G. Shah

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