News Yamuna river

Yamuna (?????) River News

Floods muddy Yamuna, water supply to be hit in South, West
New Delhi, July 13, 2010: The water quality in areas fed by the Haiderpur and Nangloi water treatment plants is likely to be affected due to an acute water shortage over the next four days following an increase in the Yamuna?s
pollution levels. Delhi Jal Board officials said levels of turbidity, ammonia and nitrate have far exceeded the permissible limits, affecting water treatment in the two plants fed by the Western Yamuna Canal.
Officials said floods in the catchment areas during monsoons leads to soil run-off that increases the levels of mud and suspended solids in water (also known as turbidity). Solid surface pollutants and discharge from various sewage and stormwater drains flow into the river, changing the colour of the water to a dark muddy brown. (Source: expressindia)

Mahaarti programme of river Yamuna

ALLAHABAD, June 17, 2010: Mahaarti programme of river Yamuna would be performed at the Baluaghat Baradari on June 21, on the occasion of Ganga Dusherra. The event would be marked by cultural programmes, deepdan and distribution of prasad.

India shuns poor evicted due to Commonwealth games

Delhi, June 16, 2010: Social activists say government efforts to portray the city as a global sporting hub come at the expense of thousands of poor urban Indians who have been evicted, displaced or exploited as a result of the Games.”The scale and frequency of evictions and demolitions of informal settlements and slums has gained momentum in the run-up to the Games,”  said Shivani Chaudhry, associate coordinator of the Housing and Land Rights Network (HLRN), an arm of the Habitat International Coalition.

Construction of new bridge over Yamuna stopped

Agra, June 9 (IANS) The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has asked for immediately stopping construction of a bridge on the river Yamuna here as it is quite close to a Mughal era monument. Superintending Archaeologist A.R. Siddiqui told IANS: “We have asked the Uttar Pradesh State Bridge Corporation Limited to stop construction and seek clearance from ASI headquarters in New Delhi.”  This, he said, had been done as new rules have come into force, according to which construction within 300 metres of a protected monument is regulated and can be continued after a green signal from the ASI headquarters.

Yamuna River Development Authority

MUMBAI , April 27, 2010 (PIB): The Central Government has constituted the Yamuna River Development Authority under the chairmanship of Lieutenant Governor, Delhi. The role of the Authority is to commission studies on different aspects of the development of the river, viz. hydrology, ecology, environmental pollution, sustainable use of the river front etc. to feed into the policy frame work; to develop a policy framework and prepare an integrated plan addressing issues of both quantity in terms of river flow and quality of Yamuna River; to develop an operational plan for implementation of the river action plan; effect inter-sectoral coordination and suggest design for a statutory framework. This information was given by the Minister of State for Finance Shrimati Namo Narain Meena who is looking other the Ministry of Environment and forests in a written reply to a question by Shri Mahendra Mohan in Rajya Sabha today.

Musical protest at Vrindavan to save Yamuna
Vrindavan, April 10, 2010: The banks of the polluted Yamuna river came alive to the soul-stirring strains of a unique musical protest that bemoaned nature’s bountiful beauty turning into a sewage drain and hoped for better sense that would one day revive its ‘divine glory’.  The musical initiative of Acharya Jaimini on Thursday evening
drew cheers and support from activists, who have been alarmed by the construction frenzy, high level of industrial effluents and toxic waste finding way into the river.

A thousand hands to save Yamuna in Taj city on World Water Day
Agra , March 22, 2010: As the world marks the World Water Day March 22, 2010 to raise awareness about this basic natural resource essential for life, volunteers here have cleaned up the banks of the Yamuna river. The Yamuna river clean-up was organised by the Rivers of the World (ROW) Foundation in the Taj city. Hundreds of school children, professionals, activists and senior citizens joined the campaign to clean up the river banks and expressed their resolve to restore the glory and eminence of the Yamuna.

Students, activists join hand to clean Yamuna River in Agra
Agra, February 7, 2010 (ANI): Setting an example for society, hundreds of enthusiastic students and local residents joined hands in the city of Taj Mahal in Uttar Pradesh on Sunday to launch a campaign to clean the polluted Yamuna river.Organized by the Nehru Youth Centre, the week-long campaign saw scores of students from around five states participating in this drive. Due to the discharge of untreated effluents upstream from open drains and barrages, the quality of water has deteriorated drastically.

Stop constructing bridge along Yamuna in Mathura: HC

Allahabad, January  23, 2010 (PTI): The Allahabad High Court has stayed the construction of a bridge along the river Yamuna at Vrindaban in Mathura, saying it was “in gross violation of Indian Archaeological Act as well as Environment (Protection) Act.The order was passed by a Division Bench comprising Justice V M Sahai and  Justice V K Dixit on a Public Interest Litigation filed by one Madhu Mangal Shukla.In the interim order on January 21, the court also stayed all “illegal constructions on the land which falls between the Ghats and river Yamuna on both sides of Vrindavan” besides ordering that dumping of garbage in the river or at its banks be stopped.

Water recycling plant to benefit 5 lakh Delhiites

Delhi, January 19, 2010 (PTI) : Water supply in north Delhi will see a marked improvement both in quality and
quantity with Chief Minister Shiela Dikshit on Tuesday launching a fully-integrated recycling plant at one of the city’s oldest water treatment complex in Wazirabad. “Five lakh more residents of Burari and Palla regions are going to be benefited from additional water supply facilitated due to the new recycling plant, which will recycle wastewater generated during water treatment operations at the complex,” Ms. Dikshit told reporters after inspecting the new facility. Delhi Jal Board is setting up two more recycle water treatment plants, the first of their kind in the country, in Bhagirathi and Chandrawal complexes. It already commissioned one in Haiderpur last year. By March 2010, these plants will collectively add a total of 45 MGD to the city’s water supply.
Vrindavan eco-activists launch Save Yamuna campaign
Vrindavan (UP), December 26, 2009 (IANS):  Even as preparations are underway here for a large religious festival starting next month, eco-activists led by former director general of police K.P.S. Gill and working under the Save Yamuna to Save Vrindavan campaign have demanded rethinking on building a new bridge at the heritage Keshi Ghat. Though district authorities are working overtime to ensure that basic civic  infrastructure is ready by early January for the festival they call a Kumbh Mela, leaders of various Akharas (Hindu sects) in Vrindavan are not satisfied with the state of preparedness.

Toyota and NDTV cleaning up the banks of the Yamuna

Delhi, December 5, 2009: Toyota and NDTV continue their green campaign with River Cleanathon In their continuing effort to create a cleaner, greener tomorrow through the hugely successful ‘Greenathon’, Toyota and NDTV celebrated International Volunteer Day (IVD) by cleaning up the banks of the Yamuna at Kudesia Ghat, in Delhi, today. The theme for IVD 2009, as conceived by the United Nations, is ‘Volunteering for our Planet’.
The campaign received an overwhelming response from India’s leading corporates, top Bollywood stars, musicians, environmentalists, NGOs and educational institutions who showed their solidarity towards the cause by participating in various clean up drives, marathon and entertaining the audience round-the-clock with their performances as part of the Greenathon, the 24 hour nonstop television programming.
Clean Yamuna project may wipe off Delhi Lake
New Delhi, November 30, 2009 ( PTI ): One of Delhi’s large water bodies, Jahangirpuri, might vanish with the State Government proposing a string of projects, the latest being a water treatment plant and sewage interceptor on the marshland. If approved by the Delhi High Court, the marshland spread over 285 acres land in North Delhi having grassland habitat will pave way for the concrete structures.
After police and PWD proposed residential complexes a few years back on 60 and 42 acres of land respectively, the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) is eyeing the site to set up a 275 MGD water treatment plant at 100 acre area to process raw water to be supplied by the Renuka dam, which is being constructed in Himachal Pradesh.
Sources told PTI that the DJB is likely to submit the affidavit in the Court seeking its permission to utilise around 20 to 40 acres of land for constructing a sewage interceptor at the site.

Thousands of fish found dead in Yamuna

Etawah (UP), November 18, 2009 (PTI) Thousands of fish have died apparently due to discharge of poisonous effluents in the Yamuna river near Mathura and Agra, raising concerns for the safety of nearby marine conservation projects. The dead fish were spotted under a bridge on the Etawah-Gwalior road yesterday, District Forest Officer (DFO) Sudershan Singh said, adding this might have been due to the poisonous discharge from Mathura refinery and Agra city into the Yamuna.
Devotees pray to setting sun on Ymuna river bank
NEW DELHI, October 26, 2009: The biggest festival of Poorvanchalis, Chhath was celebrated with much fervour in the city. The banks of the Yamuna, colourfully decorated with flowers and lights, were reverberating with devotional Bhojpuri folk songs on Saturday. Thousands of devotees, including those observing a fast, thronged the ghats to offer prayers to the setting sun.

Allahabad HC gives go ahead in Yamuna expressway
October 10, 2009:
In a reprieve to Uttar Pradesh government, the Allahabad High Court upheld the validity of notification for acquiring the land for 160 km long Yamuna Expressway from Delhi to Mathura and further to Agra. Upholding the validity of notification issued on October 15, 2007 under the provisions of Land Acquisition Act, the court asked the state government as well as the JP group of industries to go ahead to achieve the objective of the Yamuna Expressway within the time schedule.
Passing the order, a division bench comprising of Justices S K Singh and Shabibul Hasnain said ‘it cannot be said that the notification by the state government for acquisition of land for the construction of Yamuna Expressway was illegal, unlawful, unwarranted, malafide or undertaken in colourable exercise of powers.’ The court order paves the way for ambitious Yamuna Expressway project along the river Yamuna stretching from Delhi to Agra via Mathura.
Yamuna river near Delhi
AUGUST 15, 2008: After Supreme Court ruling, little hope left for Yamuna
Enclosures in Yamuna earmarked for immersing religious items
NEW DELHI, September 25, 2009 (PTI): To prevent the already-choked Yamuna river from becoming a dumping drain for religious material during the Navratra festival, Delhi Government has earmarked 13 enclosures across the city for immersion of such items.
The move comes three years after the Delhi High Court directed the authorities to take preventive measures to ensure that river is not polluted further during the festive season. According to a survey, more than 300 idols were immersed in Yamuna last year, accounting for approximately 36 tonnes of paints and  other chemicals and over 15 tonnes of puja material. 
Thousands of Fish Dying in India’s Yamuna River

September 17, 2009: High levels of pollution in the Yamuna River are killing thousands of fish in India’s Taj city Agra, in northern Uttar Pradesh state.Liquid waste being released upstream from open drains and barrages has caused the quality of the river water to deteriorate drastically. The pollution is now so high that the water is not even suitable for bathing, let alone drinking. The death of hundreds of fish that are now floating on the surface of the river has increased concerns further. Even more alarming are reports that some people are collecting these fish and selling them in the market, which could lead to the spread of disease.
– Asia Pacific News

Human chain to create awareness for pollution-free Yamuna
NEW DELHI, September 8, 2009 (PTI): To create public awareness about the need for a pollution-free Yamuna, a musical show and human chain will be organized in the capital on Saturday. Held under the public participation and awareness component of Yamuna Action Plan II, the programme will have Delhi Lt Governor Tejendra Khanna as the Chief Guest while Mayor Kanwar Sain, MCD  Commissioner K S Mehra and civic councillors will also take part. River-based musical compositions will feature in the event which
will also see participants wearing the “Yamuna Mask” — to indicate the current state of the river.

After Supreme Court ruling, little hope left for Yamuna

New  Delhi, August 15, 2009: The recent Supreme Court judgement rejecting the plea that construction of the Commonwealth Games Village on the Yamuna bed posed an environmental threat, has been greeted with dismay by activists, struggling hard for many years to revive the historic river and protect its environs. The Rs 2,000-crore Commonwealth Games Village project adjacent to Yamuna river got the Supreme Court’s green signal and was virtually rescued from an environmental trap by the Rs 500 crore Akshardham Temple complex.

The need of the hour is to save and conserve the rivers, not commercialise their environs. It is a measure of Government ineptitude that all well-intentioned efforts, such as the action plans to revive the Yamuna and Ganga, have been defeated by counter-impulses to build on the beds and floodplains. Thousands of crores of rupees assigned for these projects seem to have disappeared into a bottomless dark hole, with nothing to show for the massive investment. Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit has gone so far as to admit that it would not be possible to clean up the Yamuna by next October, when the games are slated to take place.
New Delhi, July 01, 2009: Leader of Opposition in the Delhi assembly V.K. Malhotra criticised Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit for reportedly saying that cleaning of the Yamuna river would take several more  years.“For the last three elections, the Congress government  has constantly promised a clean Yamuna and has spent over  Rs.2,000 crore on the Yamuna Cleaning Campaign. Despite all politically motivated campaigns, today we find that the holy Yamuna has been reduced to a dirty drain and may be the most  polluted river in the country,” Malhotra said.  Dikshit too accepted that her government’s Yamuna Action Plan has failed and it will not be able to clean the river before the Commonwealth Games next  October. Dikshit had reportedly said that the government would  need several years to clean the river.
U’khand seeks funding for big power projects on the river Yamuna
New Delhi, April 25, 2009: The Uttarakhand government is in talks with financial institutions like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Power Finance Corporation to revive a couple of big hydel projects. With the hydropower sector taking a beating following suspension of three major hydel projects, the state government restarted construction work on the 120 Mw Vyasi hydel project, which was stalled two decades ago due to paucity of funds. The Vyasi dam is being developed by Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (UJVNL) on the river Yamuna in Dehra Dun district with a cost of Rs 759 crore. The project would produce 438.38 million units of peaking power annually and earn a revenue of Rs 105.29 crore per year.
Vrindavan, March 23, 2009 (ANI): Hundreds of devotees, including foreigners, converged on the banks of Yamuna River here to do their bit to save the river from pollution.Organised by an The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKON) Temple here, the programme saw devotees singing devotional songs of their lord as they took out a procession of the Radha and Krishna on a decorated boat on the holy river.
NEW DELHI, February 27, 2009: Increasing effluents and sewage coupled with lack of fresh water in Yamuna during lean period has taken a toll on the water quality of the river stretch passing through the national capital, the Rajya Sabha was informed. Environment minister Namo Narain Meena in a reply to a question said the water quality monitoring carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) indicates the water quality in the stretch of the river from Tajewala to Palla in Haryana is within the prescribed limit.
NEW DELHI, February 23, 2009:
“A major project costing Rs.15 billions to trap pollutants at Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) at 18 major sewage drains falling into the Yamuna river is ready for implementation to ensure that only clean water from the entire city flows into the river,” Delhi’s Lieutenant Governor Tejender Khanna  said while flagging off Yamuna Rally at Jamia Millia Islamia organised by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). Nearly 5,000 citizens, including residents welfare associations, NGOs and university and college students, participated in the event to highlight the causes and effects of river pollution and motivate people to take action for change.

Cleaning Projects of River Yamuna

Rajya Sabha, December 18, 2008: The Government of India has undertaken Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) in a phased manner for the abatement of pollution of river Yamuna with the assistance from Japan Bank for International Cooperation, Government of Japan. The Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) Phase-I was started in April, 1993 in the three States of UP, Delhi & Haryana covering 15 towns. The project was completed in February, 2003 at a total cost of Rs. 682 crore. A total of 269 schemes of pollution abatement were completed with the creation of sewage treatment plants having additional treatment capacity of 753.25 million liters per day (mld). Under the YAP-II, which commenced in December, 2004 at an approved cost of Rs. 624 crore, the major portion of the outlay i.e. Rs. 387.17 crore has been allocated to Delhi. -PIB
Sheila defends new technology for Yamuna

NEW DELHI, December 14, 2008: Defending the interceptor sewage system as the best method of cleaning the Yamuna, Sheila Dikshit said. The earlier technologies under the Yamuna Action Plan, on which crores had been spent, were “not correct”. With the new technology, she said the river would be clean in another seven to eight years. Having headed the environment ministry earlier, Dikshit said that
even this term, environment will get special attention by her cabinet. “The Yamuna and air pollution are under special scrutiny. However, our aim is to ensure that we have maximum participation in this effort by all Delhiites,” said Dikshit.
Jal Board babus jailed for polluting Yamuna
New Delhi, November 25, 2008:
Delhi High Court on Tuesday ordered a two-week jail term for former DJB CEO Arun Mathur and two other top officials of the Board for their failure to prevent sewage from flowing into the Yamuna despite assuring the court two years ago that they will take steps to stem sewagwe flow into the river. 
Delhi releasing polluted water into Yamuna

CHANDIGARH, November 17, 2008: Haryana Financial Commissioner and Principal Secretary, Irrigation, R N Prasher said that while the state is supplying water to Delhi in river Yamuna at Wazirabad with the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of less then 2 mg per litre, in turn Delhi has been releasing “highly polluted” water down stream of Wazirabad Barrage into river Yamuna which is having BOD of upto 43 mg per liter. This water is not even fit for irrigation and is very toxic and injurious to health of animals and human beings who come into direct contact with this water, he alleged.
Why only the Ganga, make Yamuna national river too, demand activists
Agra, November 10, 2008 (IANS):  How can you think of the Ganga without the Yamuna? This is
what people living along the Yamuna river here are asking after the government decided to declare the Ganga a national river and constitute a separate panel to clean up the river. People in Agra, Mathura and Vrindavan have reacted sharply.  “Along with the Ganga, the prime minister should have also granted the same status and importance to the river Yamuna, the lifeline of Delhi, Mathura and Agra,” says environmentalist Ravi Singh.
The Braj Mandal Heritage Conservation Society  president  says the Yamuna “historically, culturally, politically and architecturally is more important than the Ganga. Along the Yamuna’s banks flourished a culture, commerce and the whole Sri Krishna-Radha mythology. Today the Yamuna is in bad shape because of pollution and lack of water.

Court steps in to save Yamuna

New Delhi, November 3, 2008 (PTI):  In a clear signal of its resolve to save the Yamuna, the Delhi High Court on Monday said that any construction close to the river that may have an adverse impact on environment would not be allowed for the Commonwealth Games 2010.
A Bench comprising Justice A K Sikri and Justice Rekha Sharma made it clear any construction that has been undertaken or is likely to be carried out by Government and other parties would be cleared by a
four-member committee. “We amply make it clear to the respondents (Government and others) that if they carry out any construction, they will be doing so at their own peril,” the Bench said, while constituting the committee headed by environmental scientist R K Pachauri.

History
It is said that, Yamuna is the consort of Lord Shri Krishna. Gokula, the divine abode of the Lord is the home of Yamuna. It is said that the river first went round Shri Krishna before descending down to earth as per the order of her Lord. River Yamuna came to be called as “Kalindi”as she touched the peak of Kalind. Then she descended down the hills and reached the plains at Khandav Vana which has been developed as Delhi city now. Yamuna and Yama are believed to be the offspring of Sun God ‘Surya’. Hence it is considered that whoever takes a dip in the holy waters of the source stream of Yamuna may not have fear of death.

Future of Yamuna?
Great cities like London developed around the Thames, Paris around Siene, Vienna around Danube, Moscow’s around  Moskva. Alexandria and Cairo around beautiful river Nile. Delhi was built around Yamuna,  Kolkata next to Hooghly and Varanasi around Ganga. While rivers continue to be the heart, soul and pride of major cities around the world, Yamuna has been choked to death.
Yamuna is the most sacred rivers in India, a life line to Delhi, Agra, Mathura  and nearby UP villages and a pride to the Capital. Till September, 2009, an expenditure of Rs 226.89 crore has been incurred under YAP phase but alll money were lost. Hollow promises made by Delhi and Central government to clean the river before Commonwealth Games in 2010 have met a dead-end. Now the Commonwealth Games are the main priorities for Delhi and Central government and the future of Yamuna is in background.
When work on the Commonwealth Games 2010 began in 2006 the mega budget was Rs 22,000 crore. It has swollen by nearly 40 per cent forcing the Delhi government to increase taxes and roll back crucial subsidies.
A 100-km stretch between Delhi and Saharanpur district in western Uttar Pradesh, the Yamuna has disappeared. Only miles and miles of sand remain. The once mighty Yamuna has been effectively reduced to a seasonal river for the past three years. Instead of boats, one sees trucks and jeeps plying on the dead stretch
of the river, with commuters using the sandy terrain as a shortcut to Haryana. Residents here blame Haryana and Delhi for the waterless river.
A number of environmental controversies arose and the adverse ecological impact of various aspects of the games have been protested by city residents. Commonwealth Games 2010 village, located on the flood plains of the Yamuna , has also been the subject of controversies  flouting of ecological norms.
Jaypee Infratech, which is planning to raise Rs 1,650 crore through an IPO, will complete its flagship project, the 165-Km Yamuna Expressway by 2011, about two years ahead of the scheduled time, said the Jaypee group founder chairman Jaiprakash Gaur. The six-lane expressway, connecting Greater Noida in NCR and Agra, is being developed at a cost of Rs 9,739 crore. The company has so far invested Rs 6,250 crore.
The new clean Yamuna project was approved by Delhi Governmenty on July 21, 2010. Delhi Cabinet agreeing to release its share of money to implement the interceptor sewer project. The Delhi government will give Rs. 882.51
crore of the total project cost of Rs. 1,358 crore. The central government has already agreed to pay the remaining amount under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban renewal Mission. Senior Delhi government officials said the interceptor sewer project would check pollution in the river by preventing sewers from flowing directly into the river.

References

1,  Ministry of Water Resources
2, Yamunotri Temple Uttarkashi
3. Upper Yamuna River Board
4. Yamunashtakam


Yamuna action plan (YAP)
Government of India (GOI) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi under Yamuna Action Plan (YAP)  which is being implemented since 1993 by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) is participating in the Yamuna Action Plan in 15 of the above 21 towns on the direction of the Supreme Court of India  with soft loan assistance of  about Rs. 700 crore,  while GOI is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns added later. The Indian government’s plans to repair sewage lines is predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by the year 2010. The government has spent nearly $500 million trying to clean up the river, most of it going to waste -treatment stations, yet pollution levels more than doubled from 1993 to 2005 and continue to rise.
A total expenditure of Rs. 682 crore has been incurred under the first phase of the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP).The phase which commenced in April 1993 was completed in 2003 covering 21 towns of UP, Delhi &
Haryana. The second Phase of YAP commenced in December, 2004. Till September, 2009, an expenditure of Rs 226.89 crore has been incurred under this phase. The projects taken up under YAP include interception and diversion of raw sewage, setting up of Sewage Treatment Plants, creation of low cost sanitation facilities, setting up of electric/improved wood crematoria etc. Sewage treatment capacity of 753.25 mld has been created so far
under this Plan. Besides YAP, the Government of NCT of Delhi has taken up sewerage and sewage treatment works under other schemes to fully address the pollution load being discharged into Yamuna.
The water quality of Yamuna has not shown the desired improvement owing to large gap between the demand and availability of sewage treatment capacity and lack of fresh water in the river. This information was given by the Minister of State for Environment and Forests (independent charge) Shri Jairam Ramesh in a written reply to a question by Sh Bhagat Singh Koshyari in Rajya Sabha November 23, 2009.

Introduction and map of Yamuna
River Yamuna (?????), with a total length of around 1,370 kilometers (851 mi), is the largest tributary of the Ganges (
River Ganga ????) in northern India. Yamuna is considered the most sacred among all the rivers as per Hindu mythology. Its source is at Yamunotri, in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, in the Himalayan Mountains. It flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, before merging with the Ganges at Allahabad. The cities of Delhi, Mathura and Agra lie on its banks.
Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially around Delhi, which dumps about 57% of its waste into the river. Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 million litres per day of sewage in the river. Even the the Supreme Court Justice B.S. Chauhan, sitting in a bench, headed by Chief Justice K.G. Balakrishnan could not refrain from observing that “it is no more a maili Yamuna but a ganda nullah.”
Yamunotri is the source of the revered river Yamuna. It constitutes one of the four most important pilgrimages, collectively called ‘Char Dham’ of the Garhwal Himalayas or Uttarakhand.
Yamuna map
Map of River Yamuna (?????)
Source of Yamuna River
The main stream of the river Yamuna originated from the Yamunotri glacier near Bandar Punch in the Mussorie range of lower Himalayas in the district of Uttar Kashi in Uttar Pradesh.  Some say the source of the river is the Saptarishi Kund, a glacial lake. There is a sacred shrine of Yamunotri or Yamnotri, near this source at an altitude of 3235 m.
There is a temple dedicated to the Goddess Yamuna, which remains closed from November to May. At Hanumanchatti, the Hanuman Ganga merges with Yamuna river. According to a legend, this secluded hilly spot was the home of an ancient sage, Asit Muni.
Temple of Yamuna at Yamnotri
Temple of Goddess Yamuna The temple was built by Maharani Gularia of Jaipur in the 19th century.
Yamuna River in plains
The main stream of the river Yamuna originated from the Yamunotri glacier of Uttar Kashi in Uttar Pradesh. The Tons and Giri rivers are the important tributaries of Yamuna and principal source of water in mountaineous range. The river Yamuna traverse a route length of about 1200 km in the plain from Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh to the confluence with river Ganga at Allahabad.
The main tributaries joining in this reach include the Hindon from eastern bank and the Chambal, the Sind, Betwa and the Ken from south-western bank. The catchment of the Yamuna river system covers parts of the states of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the entire state of Delhi. Each one of these major tributaries in turn have its own tributary system.
The River Giri with its tributaries Ashwani and Kawal Khad and the Gambhar with its main tributary Baliana are the main rivers in the eastern and western part of the Solan district. The River Tons meets river Yamuna at Dakpathar in U.P. River Hindon originates from Upstream of Saharanpur in U.P. and meets River Yamuna downstream Delhi at Mazawali, Haryana.
River Chambal is most important tributaries occupying nearly half of the basin area of Yamuna. River Chambal originates from Bar Nagar (M.P.) and joins River Yamuna after Udi (U.P.) at Juhikha (U.P.). From its origin onwards tributaries, Khan and Kshipra join river Chambal before Nagada (M.P.). Another main tributary of River Chambal is Kalisindh which gets additional water from tributary Parwan at Kota  (Rajasthan).
River Betwa originates from the upstream of Mandideep (Bhopal, M.P.) and joins River Yamuna at the down stream of Hamirpur (M.P.). River Mandakini and Ken are the last tributaries of river Yamuna before it joins river Ganga.
Yamuna River in Delhi
Yamuna river in Delhi

Yamuna river in Agra
Yamuna river in Agra

Pollution in Yamuna River
The Yamuna river passing through 22 km in Delhi was once described as the lifeline of the city, but today it has become one of the dirtiest rivers in the country. The reason:
* Delhi generates about 3,267 million litres per day (mld) of sewage while the
city’s installed waste water treatment capacity is only 2,330 mld. More than 937
mld of waste is not treated. Out of Delhi’s 2,330 mld treatment capacity, 37 per
cent is under-utilised and 1,270 mld of sewage is untreated and allowed to enter
the river everyday.
* The Yamuna’s 22-km stretch in Delhi is barely 2 per cent of the length of the river, but contributes over 70 per cent of the pollution load.
* Pollution levels in the Yamuna have risen. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load has increased by 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 – from 117 tonnes per day (TPD) in 1980 to 276 TPD in 2005.
* Delhi discharges about 3,684 MLD (million litres per day) of sewage into the Yamuna.
* The faecal coliform count, which indicates the presence of disease causing micro- organisms, is nearly 25,000 times more than the limit prescribed for bathing.
* Delhi and Agra together account for 90 per cent of the pollution in the river.
* The Capital has 16 drains discharging treated and untreated wastewater/sewage into Yamuna.
* The Najafgarh drain contributes to 60 per cent of the total wastewater and 45 per cent of the total BOD load being discharged from Delhi into the Yamuna. The municipal wastewater has increased from 960 MLD in 1977 to 1,900 MLD in 1997.
* The capacity for treatment -increased from 450 MLD in 1977 to 1,270 MLD in 1997.
* A Central Pollution Control Board study on river water quality at the upstream of Wazirabad shows dissolved oxygen (DO) level at 7.5 mg/l and BOD level at 2.3 mg/l.
* At downstream Okhla, the DO level declined to 1.3 mg/l with the BOD at 16 mg/l, indicating considerable deterioration in water quality due to discharge of sewage and industrial effluents.
* The coliform count at Wazirabad is 8,506/100 ml whereas at Okhla, it increases to 3,29,312/100 ml, as against the prescribed standard of 500/100 ml.
Sources: White Paper by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Centre for Science and Environment

Yamuna action plan (YAP)
Government of India (GOI) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi under Yamuna Action Plan (YAP)  which is being implemented since 1993 by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) is participating in the Yamuna Action Plan in 15 of the above 21 towns on the direction of the Supreme Court of India  with soft loan assistance of  about Rs. 700 crore,  while GOI is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns added later. The Indian government’s plans to repair sewage lines is predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by the year 2010. The government has spent nearly $500 million trying to clean up the river, most of it going to waste -treatment stations, yet pollution levels more than doubled from 1993 to 2005 and continue to rise.
A total expenditure of Rs. 682 crore has been incurred under the first phase of the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP).The phase which commenced in April 1993 was completed in 2003 covering 21 towns of UP, Delhi &
Haryana. The second Phase of YAP commenced in December, 2004. Till September, 2009, an expenditure of Rs 226.89 crore has been incurred under this phase. The projects taken up under YAP include interception and diversion of raw sewage, setting up of Sewage Treatment Plants, creation of low cost sanitation facilities, setting up of electric/improved wood crematoria etc. Sewage treatment capacity of 753.25 mld has been created so far
under this Plan. Besides YAP, the Government of NCT of Delhi has taken up sewerage and sewage treatment works under other schemes to fully address the pollution load being discharged into Yamuna.
The water quality of Yamuna has not shown the desired improvement owing to large gap between the demand and availability of sewage treatment capacity and lack of fresh water in the river. This information was given by the Minister of State for Environment and Forests (independent charge) Shri Jairam Ramesh in a written reply to a question by Sh Bhagat Singh Koshyari in Rajya Sabha November 23, 2009. v

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